At one point in time, sports were seen as merely a diversion from other parts of life, and fledgling sport media were no more than a newspaper’s “toy department” staffed by semiprofessionals whose work was, at best, seen as tangential to the newspaper’s main business ( Billings, 2011 ; Kian
Brent Hardin and Marie Hardin
This study explores the media-related attitudes and values of 10 male wheelchair athletes by soliciting their opinions and suggestions concerning disability sport print media. Using the “auto drive” technique for qualitative data collection, the analysis reveals four themes: (a) athletes are avid consumers of mainstream sport media; b) they use both mainstream and niche publications; (c) they do not want “courtesy coverage,” but instead, coverage focusing on elite elements of their sports; (d) they are unsure of media obligation in the coverage of sports involving athletes with disabilities. While the scope of this investigation is limited to male wheelchair athletes, the themes can provide a basis for further analysis and study in the emerging area of sport media research as it relates to disability.
Chris Gibbs and Richard Haynes
This article uses the phenomenological method to explain how Twitter has changed the nature of sport media relations. The research was based on semistructured interviews with 18 Canadian and U.S. sport media professionals having an average 16 yr of experience. This exploratory study uses the lived experience of sport media professionals to identify 3 clusters that help explain how Twitter has changed the nature of sport media relations: media landscape, “mechanical” job functions, and sport media relations. The results of this research are significant because they help explain how the practices and norms related to the role of sport media relations are changing as a result of Twitter. This research presents a new argument: that Twitter has flattened the sport hierarchy and could be considered the most influential social-media platform in sport today.
Margaret Carlisle Duncan
Sport media scholars have been increasingly interested in studying sport media texts for their meanings, particularly meanings that relate to gender and gender stereotypes. I argue that it is time to go beyond our present level of sport media analysis by identifying the formal structures that give rise to individual texts. Using the method of homology, I examine three dialectical formal structures or mechanisms of patriarchy: objectification, commodification, and voyeurism. I then select a particular text, the March 1992 Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue, to show how these mechanisms are manifested in the photographs and captions. Finally, I situate the three mechanisms in the historical and cultural contexts of the last decade and a half, where political events reveal the underlying formal structures of patriarchy.
Ellen J. Staurowsky and Jessica DiManno
As the American public is confronted with a more established female sport presence at all levels, the potential for girls to consider a career in sport media has expanded exponentially. Girls growing up in the age of ‘GRRL Power’ envision themselves as professional basketball players, world champion soccer stars, women who run like the wind, and as sports broadcasters. However, the dawn of a new age has also brought with it increasing complexity with regard to the issues aspiring young women seeking careers in sport media encounter. The overall purpose of this study was to extend the frame of our understanding about gender, sport, and the media by documenting the experiences, concerns, and attitudes of undergraduate females who hope to pursue careers as sports journalists, sports broadcasters, and sport media professionals. Based on interviews with ten undergraduate women, the next generation of women in sport media are more than prepared to take on with confidence, assertiveness, and a great deal of solid professional training the challenges that await them. However, even as undergraduates, these women have had to deal with, and make sense, of sexual objectification and sexism in the workplace. The article concludes with recommendations for how to support young women in their quest to pursue careers in sport media.
Lindsey Darvin and Michael Sagas
Gendered processes in the sport industry often perpetuate male dominance and female inferiority. While these gendered occurrences have been well documented, the outcomes of such processes are underexplored. Under the guidance of objectification theory and the production–reception relationship, the authors investigated the influence of objectification in sports-media outlets’ coverage of a female sporting event for a national sample of U.S. consumers (N = 225). In addition, given the lack of coverage directed toward female sporting events, the current study investigated the influence of previous viewership on consumer behaviors for a future women’s sporting event. Findings suggest that processes of objectification influence both men’s and women’s consumer behaviors and that previous viewership influences future consumer-behavior motives. Furthermore, objectified images and language did not adversely affect future consumer behaviors for those who had previously viewed a similar women’s sporting event. Sport-media and communications professionals alike can leverage these relationships.
Huan Yu Xiao and Andrea N. Eagleman
This commentary analyzes the growth and current status of the education, facilities, faculty, and teaching quality associated with sport communication education in China. It presents findings from a survey of Chinese sport communication students and their perceptions of the quality of education at universities offering such programs, as well as survey results from Chinese sport media professionals and their assessments of the students graduating from these programs. The results of these surveys signify problematic areas in sport communication education, such as an imbalance between the number of students in these programs and the amount of equipment and resources available, the shortage of qualified teachers, and the lack of applied sport communication opportunities available to the students. The article also details the relationship between supply and demand in academia. The commentary closes with proposed strategic solutions for the reformation and development of the academic environment related to sport communication in China.
Choong Hoon Lim, Tywan G. Martin and Dae Hee Kwak
The current study employs the hedonic paradigm model (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982) to investigate the interceding function of emotions on the relationship between personality (i.e., risk taking) and attitude toward mixed martial arts. This study also examines sport-media (e.g., television) consumption of a nontraditional sport. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the proposed model incorporating risk taking, pleasure, arousal, attitude, and actual consumption behavior. The study found a significant mediation effect of emotion (pleasure and arousal) in the relationship between risk taking and attitude. In addition, attitude showed a direct and significant influence on actual media-consumption behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, along with future directions for research.
Lynley Ingerson, Michael L. Naraine, Nola Agha and Daniel J. Pedroza
groundwork of assessing the current situation in the digital space, from which the targeted audience and supporting social media plan can be developed. Understanding NBA Sports Bay Area NBC Sports Group is part of the corporate conglomerate, NBC Universal, and is responsible for delivering sport media
Grace Yan and Nicholas M. Watanabe
After the South Korean men’s soccer team beat its Japanese counterpart in the bronze-medal match at the 2012 London Olympics, South Korean player Park Jung-Woo celebrated with a banner that displayed Dokdo is our land. Dokdo is called the Liancourt Rocks in English, the sovereignty over which has been an ongoing point of contention between South Korea and Japan. This study conducts a critical discourse analysis to examine media representations of Park’s banner celebration, as well as the ensuing discussion in major Korean and Japanese newspapers. The analysis reveals a contrastive picture: The Korean media vocally approached Park’s behavior as an emotional response of self-righteous indignation and quickly enacted memories of Korea’s victimhood in World War II to make justifications, whereas the Japanese media participated in a relatively disengaged absence. Japan’s silence disclosed a glimpse into its rich postwar history of social conflict and political resistance. Such contrast is also indicative of how sport media can be engaged in nuanced social contexts, generating representations that serve nation-state regimes situated in different political dynamics.