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Nick Takos, Duncan Murray and Ian O’Boyle

Australian sport organizations (e.g., the Essendon Football Club drug investigation by Australian Sports Anti-doping Authority and the Melbourne Storm salary cap scandal) illustrate similar leadership concerns. The AFL is the wealthiest and most popular sporting organization in Australia, capturing the

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Stephen Frawley, Daniel Favaloro and Nico Schulenkorf

professional sport organizations, with the intent of providing insights into their experience-based leadership development practices. To achieve this research aim, the paper begins by outlining the relevant leadership development literature and the theoretical perspectives that inform the empirical study. The

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Milena M. Parent, Michael L. Naraine and Russell Hoye

Significant changes have occurred in the sport system landscape since Slack and his colleagues (e.g., Kikulis, Slack, & Hinings, 1992 ; Slack & Hinings, 1992 , 1994 ; Thibault, Slack, & Hinings, 1991 , 1992 ) examined the governance and management of Canadian national sport organizations (NSOs

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Gareth J. Jones, Katie Misener, Per G. Svensson, Elizabeth Taylor and Moonsup Hyun

Interorganizational relationships (IORs) have been highlighted as a useful strategy for nonprofit youth sport organizations to acquire resources and improve organizational effectiveness ( Babiak, Thibault, & Willem, 2018 ; Casey, Payne, & Eime, 2009 ; Cousens & Barnes, 2009 ). Both conceptual and

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Lauren C. Hindman and Nefertiti A. Walker

organizations experience sexism? Second, how does sexism impact the career experiences of these women? Our study is framed by an understanding of gendered organizational culture and sexism in sport organizations, which we review in the next section. Theoretical Framework Organizational Culture Organizational

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Lisa M. Kikulis, Trevor Slack, Bob Hinings and Alan Zimmermann

The theoretical rationale underlying this study was that a variety of structural design types exist in amateur sport organizations and that their structural characteristics may be effectively measured, scaled, and compared. Characteristics were defined along three dimensions of organizational structure: specialization, standardization, and centralization. The approach used to identify the structural design types was the creation of an organizational taxonomy. Based on the measurement of 15 structural scales for 59 provincial sport organizations, Ward’s hierarchical fusion algorithm clustering technique was used to partition these data into homogeneous subsets. Analysis revealed 8 structural design types. The results, while providing support for the idea that there is a trend toward a more professional and bureaucratic form for amateur sport organizations, also suggest that it is important to consider the potential variety in the structural design of these organizations.

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Jesse Sakires, Alison Doherty and Katie Misener

This study examined perceptions and correlates of role ambiguity among sport administrators in voluntary sport organizations. Building on the seminal work of Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, and Rosenthal (1964), a multidimensional measure of role ambiguity in the organizational setting was developed for this purpose. The sample consisted of 79 paid staff and 143 volunteer board members from provincial voluntary sport organizations. Respondents completed an online questionnaire that included items pertaining to role ambiguity, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, effort, and demographic variables including age, gender, position, organization tenure, and position tenure. Preliminary support was found for a three-dimensional model of role ambiguity consisting of scope of responsibilities ambiguity, mean-sends knowledge ambiguity, and performance outcomes ambiguity. Role ambiguity was negatively associated with age, job tenure, and organization tenure, with more years of experience reflecting greater role clarity. Greater role ambiguity was also associated with lower levels of satisfaction, organizational commitment, and effort. In addition, ambiguity pertaining to scope of responsibilities was the primary predictor of both satisfaction and organizational commitment, while performance outcomes ambiguity and means-ends knowledge ambiguity significantly predicted effort. Implications for the management of role ambiguity in voluntary sport organizations, and the merits of a multidimensional approach to understanding this phenomenon, are discussed.

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Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

message ( Buist & Mason, 2010 ; Delaney & Eckstein, 2008 ; Kim, Choi, & Kaplanidou, 2015 ; Moore, Hesson, & Jones, 2015 ). In turn, the public interprets communication from the team and media to form opinions about the team or athlete. Today, sport organizations or athletes can choose to bypass the

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Daniel Soucie

By virtue of their formal role in sport organizations, sport administrators are responsible for empowering subordinates to establish and achieve goals. The extent of their leadership skills will largely dictate the outcome of their actions with subordinates. After nearly a century of research on leadership, the question still remains as to what makes an effective leader. There are no absolute truths and no general panaceas about effective managerial leadership. However, a careful review of the literature reveals that a lot more is known about this topic than is usually acknowledged. The purpose of this article is to (a) express a perspective regarding leadership, (b) draw lessons from the leadership literature, (c) gain insights from research about leadership effectiveness, and (d) infer from this literature prescriptions for practicing sport administrators. The article reviews the research literature that pertains to (a) leadership influence and power, (b) leadership traits and skills, (c) leadership behaviors, (d) situational leadership, and (e) charismatic and transformational leadership.

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Susen M. MacMillan

In Canada, amateur athletes who receive government funding in support of their training are required to sign an agreement with the respective sport organization in order to qualify for the assistance. This illustrates how legal practices are increasingly being used in sport. It is important for participants in sport to understand what the legal elements of such practices are in order to identify those situations in which they have been applied properly, inaccurately , or inappropriately. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the content of the agreements signed by Canadian athletes and the procedures by which they are implemented. The result of this analysis is a list of issues that athletes and administrators may wish to address or improve in order to provide a more fair agreement between the parties.