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Israel Halperin, Andrew D. Vigotsky, Carl Foster and David B. Pyne

Over the passing years, exercise and sport sciences have developed into a large field of study consisting of several disciplines including physiology, biomechanics, psychology, nutrition, performance analysis, motor learning and control, strength and conditioning, and sports medicine. Much like

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Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale

performed on female athletes: 2 studies were conducted on synchronized swimmers (now called artistic swimmers), 1 on handball players, and 1 on soccer players. By contrast, one of us (R.S.T.) has made a career in sport science by mainly studying women and sex differences in responses and adaptations to

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Patrick Ward, Johann Windt and Thomas Kempton

Sport science, the application of scientific principles to inform practice, 1 has become increasingly common as professional sporting organizations seek to gain a performance advantage. These organizations increasingly employ sport scientists from varying backgrounds including physiology, strength

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Carl Foster

Sport science can mean a lot of different things. At one level, it can be the collation and transmission of scientific findings to coaches and athletes. At another, it can be the evaluation of athletes in the laboratory, intended to give the coach a venue free view of the current status and

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Alan D. Ruddock, Craig Boyd, Edward M. Winter and Mayur Ranchordas

from the goal of becoming an Olympic champion or an Olympian might be 8 hours away. • Why do they seek scientific support? • What are their expectations of support? • What support have they had previously? To identify what the athlete thinks of sport sciences and to understand their expectations of

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Lieselot Decroix, Kevin De Pauw, Carl Foster and Romain Meeusen

Aim:

To review current cycling-related sport-science literature to formulate guidelines to classify female subject groups and to compare this classification system for female subject groups with the classification system for male subject groups.

Methods:

A database of 82 papers that described female subject groups containing information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology, biometrical and physiological parameters, and cycling experience was analyzed. Subject groups were divided into performance levels (PLs), according to the nomenclature. Body mass, body-mass index, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), and training status were compared between PLs and between female and male PLs.

Results:

Five female PLs were defined, representing untrained, active, trained, well-trained, and professional female subjects. VO2max and PPO significantly increased with PL, except for PL3 and PL4 (P < .01). For each PL, significant differences were observed in absolute and relative VO2max and PPO between male and female subject groups. Relative VO2max is the most cited parameter for female subject groups and is proposed as the principal parameter to classify the groups.

Conclusion:

This systematic review shows the large variety in the description of female subject groups in the existing literature. The authors propose a standardized preexperimental testing protocol and guidelines to classify female subject groups into 5 PLs based on relative VO2max, relative PPO, training status, absolute VO2max, and absolute PPO.

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Thomas Haugen

The gap between sport science and field practice has been the subject of considerable debate. While there are numerous examples describing how poorly research often applies to the field, there are numerous success stories from which lessons can be learned. As an employee at Olympiatoppen (the

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David Pyne

interventions, a plot of change scores of the dependent variable versus those of potential mediators can be useful. Mechanism variables are particularly useful in unblinded interventions common in sport science research to differentiate the underlying effect of the intervention from that of a placebo or nocebo

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Alan McCall, Maurizio Fanchini and Aaron J. Coutts

In high-performance sport, science and medicine practitioners employ a variety of physical and psychological tests, training and match monitoring, and injury-screening tools for a variety of reasons, mainly to predict performance, identify talented individuals, and flag when an injury will occur. The ability to “predict” outcomes such as performance, talent, or injury is arguably sport science and medicine’s modern-day equivalent of the “Quest for the Holy Grail.” The purpose of this invited commentary is to highlight the common misinterpretation of studies investigating association to those actually analyzing prediction and to provide practitioners with simple recommendations to quickly distinguish between methods pertaining to association and those of prediction.

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Trent A. Petrie and C. Edward Watkins Jr.

As the field of sport psychology has evolved and become more focused on applied/practitioner issues, the need for interdisciplinary training has been noted. Little information exists, however, concerning the acceptability of sport psychology training in applied psychology programs. Thus, 41 counseling psychology programs and 41 exercise/sport science departments (matched pairs) were surveyed to determine their relative attitudes toward sport psychology research, training, and current professional issues. The exercise/sport science departments were found to offer more courses in sport psychology and to have more faculty and students interested in sport research. Over 70% of the counseling psychology programs, however, had students with sport psychology interests. In addition, the two academic areas reported equally high levels of acceptance concerning their graduate students pursuing sport psychology research and training. Mechanisms for promoting interdisciplinary training in sport psychology are discussed.