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Kathleen A. Csizma, Arno F. Wittig and K. Terry Schurr

Two samples were used to assess the sex linkage of a wide range of sports. One sample rated each of 68 sports (Matteo, 1984) on perceived acceptability and likelihood of participation for both females and males. The other judged the same 68 sports for masculinity-femininity and perceived complexity. Additionally, all 68 sports were compared to Metheny's (1965) physical activities criteria for perceived appropriateness for female participation. Results indicated that masculinity-femininity judgments were similar to those obtained by Matteo (1984) and that correlations of sex linkage of sport with acceptability and likelihood of participation were high, especially for judgments about female participants. Agreement between sex-type categories for sports and Metheny's (1965) criteria was most consistent for sports receiving either the most extreme masculine or most extreme feminine ratings. It appears that perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of sports are influenced by the gender of who actually participates in those sports as well as the physical activities involved in the sports. Finally, the correlation between mean masculinity-femininity and simplicity-complexity ratings was small and not significant. Indeed, those groups of sports categorized as masculine and feminine were rated as equally complex, and both groups were judged as significantly more complex than the sports classified as neutral. This finding negates Deaux's (1984) contention that feminine tasks are inevitably judged to be simpler than masculine tasks.

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Rachael C. Stone, Shane N. Sweet, Marie-Josée Perrier, Tara MacDonald, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

, sociability, leadership, and a competitive drive ( Arbour et al., 2007 ; Kittson et al., 2013 ). These promising findings stem from examining the exerciser–sport stereotype using the SCM framework, but have yet to examine the exerciser–sport stereotype within a BIAS map context. In addition, exerciser–sport

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Shannon S. C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

literature frequently pointed to the prevalent sport-affiliated stereotype of a SMM as a man who is nonathletic, physically weak, 30 and “feminine.” 26 , 34 , 35 , 43 Three studies (16%) identified homophobia as a process that perpetuates the SMM-specific sport stereotype. 24 , 28 , 41 Gill et al 34

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Tshepang Tshube and Stephanie J. Hanrahan

, 2006 ; Tshube, 2014 ; Tshube & Hanrahan, 2016 ) indicates that cultural practices are at the core of Batswana’s daily lives. For example, greeting elders is considered a fundamental cultural value ( Tshube & Hanrahan, 2016 ). Other cultural factors include the use of sangoma in sport and sport

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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir

relative to sport competence and value during adolescence . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15 ( 2 ), 212 – 215 . doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.11.003 Boiché , J. , Plaza , M. , Chalabaev , A. , Guillet-Descas , E. , & Sarrazin , P. ( 2014 ). Social antecedents and consequences of gender-sport

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Susan Lagaert, Mieke Van Houtte and Henk Roose

.1007/s11199-008-9543-y Boiché , J. , Plaza , M. , Chalabaev , A. , Guillet-Descas , E. , & Sarrazin , P. ( 2014 ). Social antecedents and consequences of gender-sport stereotypes during adolescence . Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38 ( 2 ), 259 – 274 . doi:10.1177/0361684313505844 10

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Shannon S.C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

, 2008 ) to leadership behaviors ( Fink, Burton, Farrell, & Parker, 2012 ) to individual sexual and gender identities ( Cunningham, 2012 ). Prevailing sport stereotypes about effeminate gay cis-men ( Fink, 2008 ) and masculine lesbian cis-women ( Kauer & Krane, 2006 ) often provide the foundations for

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Leticia Oseguera, Dan Merson, C. Keith Harrison and Sue Rankin

), and Comeaux and Harrison ( 2011 ). Further, the engagement levels of featured-sport participants in the study did not negatively influence academic success, which challenges the revenue sport stereotype, especially for men of color. Finally, no gender differences were found except for the multi

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith and Robin Hardin

& DiManno, 2002 ). Burton ( 2015 ) suggested that there are numerous reasons why women have not seen the same increases in ability to secure leadership positions as they have seen in participation opportunities, including the gendered nature of sport, stereotyping, discrimination, organizational culture