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Julie R. Steele and Peter D. Milburn

This study examined the influence of 12 different synthetic sport surfaces (bitumen, concrete, 3 samples of synthetic grass, and 7 samples of rubber surfaces) on ground reaction forces at landing in netball. Ground reaction force data were obtained for 10 skilled netball players at landing after performing a typical attacking netball movement pattern. Force–time histories of the maximum peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF), the initial peak VGRF, and peak braking forces were determined for each trial. Results of the a priori planned comparison analysis indicated that subjects demonstrated significantly longer time to maximum peak VGRF and initial peak VGRF when landing on grass, higher peak braking forces when landing on bitumen and concrete combined, and a significantly shorter time to peak braking force when landing on grass in comparison to other samples tested. It was concluded that the rubber surfaces tested demonstrated the potential for being the most suitable playing surface for minimization of injuries in netball.

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Klaus Peikenkamp, Martin Fritz and Klaus Nicol

The surface-athlete interaction is discussed as one possible factor in overuse injuries, as the ground reaction force does not depend only on the athlete’s movement during surface contact but also on the mechanical properties of the playing surface. Since it is extremely difficult to measure the ground reaction force on an area-elastic surface, two damped linear-spring models were combined to calculate both the vertical ground reaction force on area-elastic surfaces and their deformations during the athlete’s landing from a jump height of 0.45 m. The athlete model consists of 4 segments (feet, shanks, thighs, and rest of the body) and the surface model consists of 5 segments each connected (a) to the concrete and (b) to each other via an additional imaginary segment. While the connections to the concrete were kept constant, the surface mass and the connections between the segments were varied in order to consider different degrees of area-elasticity of the simulated surfaces. With this approach it was shown that both the passive and active maximum of the vertical ground reaction force depend only on the maximum deformation of the surface, whereas the force rates vary greatly for identical maximum deformations. It appears that these differences increase with increasing maximum deformation. Therefore, in constructing area-elastic sport surfaces, the maximum deformation allowed should be as large as would coincide with other functions the surface must fulfill. Subsequently, the surface mass interacting with the athlete during landing should be large and the damping properties between these mass-segments should be very small.

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Enrique Colino, Jorge Garcia-Unanue, Leonor Gallardo, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucia and Jose Luis Felipe

surfaces with very low spring stiffness, such as foams or dry beach sand, have proven to cause a reduction in the elastic energy recovery and thus to compromise running efficiency and performance. 30 Further, Baroud et al 1 reported that the energy returned from a sport surface to an athlete can only be

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.2.114 Effect of Different Synthetic Sport Surfaces on Ground Reaction Forces at Landing in Netball Julie R. Steele * Peter D. Milburn * 5 1988 4 2 130 145 10.1123/ijsb.4.2.130 The Uniform Density Assumption: Its Effect upon the Estimation of Body Segment Inertial Parameters Timothy R. Ackland * Peter W

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Patellofemoral Pain Bryan C. Heiderscheit * Joseph Hamill * Richard E.A. van Emmerik * 5 2002 18 2 110 121 10.1123/jab.18.2.110 Simulation of the Vertical Ground Reaction Force on Sport Surfaces during Landing Klaus Peikenkamp * Martin Fritz * Klaus Nicol * 5 2002 18 2 122 134 10.1123/jab.18

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

likely influenced by the mechanical properties of a sport surface. To properly analyze the player–surface interaction, it is necessary to measure the mechanical properties of the field, 14 which was a key element of our research study. We selected ASTM F-1936 protocol to measure time

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Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino and Leonor Gallardo

measured 3 times in each of 5 zones on each surface (Figure  1 ), but only the last 2 measurements from each zone were used in the statistical analysis. Figure 1 —Zones to assess the sport surfaces. Prior to the main test, players completed a Yo–Yo test of intermittent recovery level 1. 13 Maximum heart