As public interest in social responsibility in business has increased, professional sport teams have also recognized the importance of their social role in their communities ( Kihl, Babiak, & Tainsky, 2014 ). The growth of socially responsible programs and initiatives in this industry has led
Yongjae Kim, Soojin Kim, and Elizabeth Rogol
an outlet to bring in new sources of revenues. As such, sport teams have quickly adopted the technology to offer their team’s official application to their fans. In a study conducted by Flurry Analytics, sport fans were found to use mobile apps to follow live sports, keep up with team scores, trade
Alex J. Benson and Mark Eys
& Ashforth, 1997 ). Several reasons account for why this is the case. First, individuals are more impressionable during their transition into a new group role, and thus groups are likely to exert the greatest influence over newcomers ( Van Maanen & Schein, 1979 ). Second, sport teams are composed of socially
Mark A. Eys, Albert V. Carron, Mark R. Beauchamp, and Steven R. Bray
The general purpose of the present study was to examine the nature of role ambiguity in sport teams and to explore the construct validity of the operational definition of role ambiguity developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron (2002). Role ambiguity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct (Scope of Responsibilities, Behavioral Responsibilities, Evaluation of Performance, and Consequences of Not Fulfilling Responsibilities) that occurs in two contexts, offense and defense. Consistent with the a priori hypothesis, perceptions of role ambiguity exhibited some degree of within-group consistency and group-level variability, but most of the variance in role ambiguity was seen at the individual level. Also, perceptions of role ambiguity decreased from early to late season. Finally, veteran athletes experienced less role ambiguity than first-year athletes at the beginning of the season, but not at the end. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Krista Munroe, Paul Estabrooks, Paul Dennis, and Albert Carron
This study aimed to identify group norms present in sport teams for practices, competition, social situations, and the off-season. Participants (n = 87 males, n = 53 females) were asked to list behaviors prescribed (i.e., expected) or proscribed (i.e., not appropriate) for each of the four situations. Results showed that a norm associated with productivity was the most frequently cited for competitions (16.3%), practice (22.3%), and the off-season (60.1%). Many of the other frequently cited norms indirectly reflected on productivity—punctuality (23.6 and 8.9% for practices and competitions, respectively), attendance (13.6 and 3.0%, respectively), and preparedness (3.3 and 7.1%, respectively). An overwhelming majority of the other norms cited were related to group maintenance (i.e., in the off-season, maintain contact, 8.7%; in social situations, attend functions. 16.5%; and respect teammates, 16.5%). Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to sport team dynamics.
Mark Eys, M. Blair Evans, Luc J. Martin, Jeannine Ohlert, Svenja A. Wolf, Michael Van Bussel, and Charlotte Steins
A previous meta-analysis examining the relationship between cohesion and performance (Carron, Colman, Wheeler, & Stevens, 2002) revealed that this relationship was significantly stronger for female teams as compared with male teams. The purpose of the current study was to explore perceptions of the cohesion-performance relationship by coaches who have led teams of both genders. Semistructured interviews were employed with Canadian and German coaches with previous experience leading both male and female sport teams. The information obtained through the interviews yielded a number of categories pertaining to potential similarities and differences within female and male sport teams including: (a) the nature of cohesion (e.g., direction of the cohesion-performance relationship), (b) antecedents of cohesion (e.g., approaches to conflict), and (c) the management of cohesion (e.g., developing social cohesion). Overall, the results offer testable propositions regarding gender differences and group involvement in a sport context as well as informing best practices such that teams can attain optimal performance.
Harry H. Kwon and Ketra L. Armstrong
This two-stage study investigated a proposed model of impulse buying of sport team licensed merchandise among college students (N = 464) enrolled in a large Midwestern university. The proposed model included measures of impulsivity, psychological attachment to sport, and financial situation. The proposed model was tested with structural equation modeling. The results indicated that the proposed model (RMSEA = .058; NFI = .916; CFI = .947, χ2/df = 2.57), along with the partial models of impulsivity (RMESA = .062, NFI = .96, CFI = .98, χ2/df = 2.78) and psychological attachment (RMSEA = .057; NFI = .98; CFI = .988, χ2/df = 2.50), fit the data with a degree of reasonable fit. This study illustrates how personal, psychosocial, and situational factors might interact to influence impulse buying of sport team licensed merchandise.
Thilo Kunkel, Jason Patrick Doyle, and Alexander Berlin
Consumers’ evaluations of their favorite sport team’s contests are influenced by the value that the team provides to them. The current research contributes to the sport management literature through conceptualizing and measuring the dimensions that influence the perceived value consumers link with their favorite sport team’s games and testing the explanatory ability of this perceived value on their satisfaction with, and commitment toward, the team. Five semistructured expert interviews were conducted to conceptualize perceived value dimensions and measurement items. Next, a multidimensional Consumers’ Perceived Value of Sport Games scale (CPVSG) was developed and tested across two studies with football (soccer) consumers (N 1 = 225; N 2 = 382) in Germany. Results from confirmatory factor and structural equation modeling analyses indicate that five dimensions—functional, social, emotional, epistemic, and economic value—reflect perceived value dimensions that consumers associate with sport team games. Results also indicated these perceived value dimensions were predictive of consumers’ satisfaction with, and commitment toward, their favorite team. Thus, this research adds to the literature by providing the multidimensional CPVSG scale and demonstrating its value in explaining variance in attitudinal outcome variables.
Angela Lumpkin, Judy Favor, and Lacole McPherson
While the number of high school girls’ teams has dramatically increased since Title IX, the number of female head coaches has not. In the 10 most popular high school sports in 2011-2012, only three (volleyball, swimming and diving, and competitive spirit squads) had more than 44% female head coaches. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether females or males are coaching high school girls’ sport teams and whether female coaches are attaining head coaching positions in the most popular high school girls’ sports. Additionally, the study sought to understand better why males and females choose to become head coaches of high school girls’ sport teams and what factors might cause head high school girls’ coaches to resign from coaching. In the 21–30 age group, there were more female than male head coaches of girls’ teams, but after age 40, male head coaches vastly outnumbered female head coaches. Of the coaches with 12 or more years of experience, only 33% were females. Time away from family, player issues, inadequate compensation, and time away from other activities were the top reasons high school coaches might resign.
Sebastian Harenberg, Harold A. Riemer, Erwin Karreman, and Kim D. Dorsch
Competition is a common phenomenon and occurs frequently in sports. In high performance sports, competition takes place not only between teams (interteam competition) but also within a team (intrateam competition). In the intrateam competition, coaches might play a central role because of their power to structure competition within their teams. Yet, there is a lack of research exploring how coaches facilitate this type of competition. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to explore how university-level team sport coaches’ experience, structure and use intrateam competition. Eight full-time Canadian Interuniversity Sports head coaches participated in semistructured interviews. The participants indicated that intrateam competition involves two distinct types of competition: situational and positional competition. While situational competition occurs primarily in practices, positional competition is an ongoing, continual process in which athletes who occupy the same position compete for playing time. The coaches shared important considerations about how to carefully structure and use both types of competition constructively. The study is an original account of intrateam competition as a multifaceted, constructive process within high performance sport teams.