The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has exposed major weaknesses in economic, governmental, and social structures that many have taken for granted in everyday life. The sport industry, which has gained unprecedented popularity in recent decades, is no exception. Decisions, driven in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, to suspend play in major sports leagues across the globe have exposed the precarious nature of the work situation that hourly event workers find themselves in. As the games stopped, so did the earnings of workers who impact essential aspects of the sport spectators’ experience. These workers include the part-time front of house staff for public assembly facilities, including ushers, concessions workers, ticket takers, and security personnel. This essay, drawing on ideas from C.W. Mills, Arne Kalleberg, and Guy Standing, will examine the impact of the pandemic on the employment of these workers by looking at the state of labor associated with sport and sports events. Furthermore, the essay will explore the challenges facing a class of workers who depend on numerous part-time or seasonal sports event jobs to scrape together an existence when sport suddenly stops. Finally, the essay will address the potential aftereffects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sport labor and consider how sport work could change as a result. This scholarly commentary lays the groundwork for further study and analysis of an important, yet rarely remarked on, aspect of employment morality and sport labor studies.
R. Dale Sheptak Jr. and Brian E. Menaker
Ted Hayduk III and Matt Walker
Human-resource management is a unique challenge for professional sport franchises (PSFs). A lack of research on full-time employees in sport means we know little about the perceptions of those most connected to PSFs despite the unique nature of the sport industry. This paper investigates whether communicating socially responsible behavior (SRB) in sport job postings generates more prospective person–organization fit (POFit) and greater application intention. Uncovering these relationships will help sport practitioners optimize their hiring process by targeting recruitment messages. The analysis does not support the idea that communicating SRB in a sport job posting enhances prospective POFit or application intentions, even for socially conscious applicants. These findings contradict similar exercises carried out in other industries, highlighting the distinctiveness of professional sport.
Janet B. Parks and Luis Fernando Parra
This study investigated job satisfaction of alumnae/i of an undergraduate sport management program (N = 254). It questioned whether there would be a significant difference between job satisfaction scores of alumnae/i employed in positions related to sport and the scores of alumnae/i employed in positions unrelated to sport. Job satisfaction was measured by the Job Descriptive Index and the Job in General scales (Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, & Paul, 1989; Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969). Eighty-four (71.2%) of the 118 respondents held positions related to sport and 34 (28.8%) were in positions unrelated to sport. A MANOVA with follow-up ANOVAs was used to examine differences in satisfaction scores across the “jobs related to sport/jobs unrelated to sport” distinction. Except for “satisfaction with present pay,” no significant differences were found. These results suggested that sport management alumnae/i who obtain jobs unrelated to sport may have approximately equal prospects of attaining job satisfaction as graduates who obtain jobs related to sport.
Samuel Y. Todd, Marshall Magnusen, Damon P. S. Andrew, and Tony Lachowetz
Realistic job previews (RJPs) occur when both positive and negative information about a job is presented to a potential applicant. Because job seekers in the sport industry sometimes target opportunities based upon their personal affection for particular sports/sport organizations, the presentation of realistic information about the actual work could be key. The purpose of this two study, quasi-experimental research design was to examine the effect of RJPs on job seekers’ levels of attraction to sport job openings, perceptions of person-job fit, and job acceptance intentions. Study 1 results suggested job seekers’ acceptance intentions and attraction to the job changed after the job seeker encountered realistic information. Study 2 results suggested job seekers’ acceptance intentions and perceived job fit changed after encountering an RJP where perceived prestige was a factor. Thus, RJPs appear to influence the attractiveness, acceptability, and perceived fit of a job opening in sport.
Paul M. Pedersen
, case studies, commentaries). The current issue continues this tradition with contributions such as a scholarly commentary on the sport media’s coverage of social activism by athletes, a student–professor research study on the communication of socially responsible business in sport job postings, an
Ryan Snelgrove, Laura Wood, and Dan Wigfield
business education . Teaching in Higher Education, 7 ( 4 ), 429 – 441 . doi:10.1080/135625102760553928 10.1080/135625102760553928 Todd , S.Y. , & Andrew , D.P.S. ( 2008 ). An exploratory investigation of sport management students’ attraction to sport jobs . International Journal of Sport
Megan B. Shreffler, Samuel H. Schmidt, and James Weiner
previously mentioned study by Clapp ( 2016 ), which found that 53% of sport job postings included wording relating to a sales skill set. The lack of sales within sport management curricula indicates a failure to heed the advice from Irwin and Sutton ( 2011 ) and begs the question of whether sport management
David Pierce and James Johnson
Online . Todd , S. , & Andrew , D. ( 2008 ). An exploratory investigation of sport management students’ attraction to sport jobs . International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 4 ( 4 ), 323 – 337 . doi:10.1504/IJSMM.2008.022374 10.1504/IJSMM.2008.022374 Upperman , P. , & Church , T
Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope, and John Williams
reports 400% rise in alleged discrimination and sexism . Guardian . Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/football/2018/may/29/women-in-football-report-400-rise-in-alleged-discrimination-and-sexism Kessel , A. ( 2018 , June 20 ). Report finds 40% of women face discrimination in sport jobs