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Revealing Findings in Youth Sport Parenting Research

Camilla J. Knight

involved in youth sport, youth sport researchers have given considerable attention to developing an evidence base pertaining to sport parenting ( Holt & Knight, 2014 ). Researchers and practitioners are increasingly working with sport organizations, coaches, and parents themselves to promote high

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Missing Out, as Well: The Absence of Youth Sports and Its Effect on Parents During the COVID-19 Global Pandemic

Niel Strydom, Alex Murata, and Jean Côté

The majority of youth sport programming would cease to exist without the investment and support of youth sport parents. In fact, looking into how parents might provide positive support to their child and adolescent athletes, Fredricks and Eccles ( 2004 ) suggested that parents play three major

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The Parent–Child Relationship and Sport Parents’ Experiences of Burnout and Engagement

J.D. DeFreese, Travis E. Dorsch, and Travis A. Flitton

sport participation on psychological and emotional outcomes for sport parents, through experiences of parent–child interaction and involvement ( Dorsch, Smith, & McDonough, 2009 ; 2015 ). Accordingly, organized youth sport represents an environment in which sport scientists are not only concerned with

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How Do Sport Parents Engage in Autonomy-Supportive Parenting in the Family Home Setting? A Theoretically Informed Qualitative Analysis

Nicholas L. Holt, Helene Jørgensen, and Colin J. Deal

Researchers have suggested that youth sport parenting should be studied using a broad perspective, considering a range of social interactions that characterize parenting within the family home setting ( Holt et al., 2009 ). Such recommendations are based on the view that studying discrete examples

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Youth Sport Parenting Styles and Practices

Nicholas L. Holt, Katherine A. Tamminen, Danielle E. Black, James L. Mandigo, and Kenneth R. Fox

The purpose of this study was to examine parenting styles and associated parenting practices in youth sport. Following a season-long period of fieldwork, primary data were collected via interviews with 56 parents and supplemented by interviews with 34 of their female children. Data analysis was guided by Grolnick's (2003) theory of parenting styles. Analyses produced five findings: (1) Autonomy-supportive parents provided appropriate structure for their children and allowed them to be involved in decision making. These parents were also able to read their children's mood and reported open bidirectional communication. (2) Controlling parents did not support their children's autonomy, were not sensitive to their children's mood, and tended to report more closed modes of communication. (3) In some families, there were inconsistencies between the styles employed by the mother and father. (4) Some parenting practices varied across different situations. (5) Children had some reciprocal influences on their parents' behaviors. These findings reveal information about the multiple social interactions associated with youth sport parenting.

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Parents' Perceptions of Child-to-Parent Socialization in Organized Youth Sport

Travis E. Dorsch, Alan L. Smith, and Meghan H. McDonough

The purpose of this study was to enhance understanding of how parents are socialized by their children's organized youth sport participation. Five semistructured focus groups were conducted with youth sport parents (N = 26) and analyzed using qualitative methods based on Strauss and Corbin (1998). Sixty-three underlying themes reflected parents' perceived socialization experiences resulting from their children's organized youth sport participation. Each theme represented 1 of 11 subcategories of parental change, which were subsumed within four broad categories of parent sport socialization (behavior, cognition, affect, relationships). Each category of parental change was interconnected with the other three categories. Moreover, six potential moderators of parent sport socialization were documented, namely, child age, parent past sport experience, parent and child gender, child temperament, community sport context, and type of sport setting (individual or team). Together, these findings enhance understanding of parent sport socialization processes and outcomes, thus opening avenues for future research on parents in the youth sport setting.

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Evaluating the “Optimal Competition Parenting Workshop” Using the RE-AIM Framework: A 4-Year Organizational-Level Intervention in British Junior Tennis

Sam N. Thrower, Christopher M. Spray, and Chris G. Harwood

individual and environmental levels (e.g.,  Harwood & Knight, 2009 ). Such literature has generated an increased realization of the pivotal and complex roles parents play in young athletes’ development and has led to the design, delivery, and evaluation of several sport parent education programs (see Burke

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A Collective Case Study of Parent–Athlete–Coach Triads in British Youth Tennis

Ella F. Tagliavini, Chris G. Harwood, Sophia Jowett, and Sam N. Thrower

relationships with their parents report greater enjoyment and motivation in contrast to parental relationships that focus on rankings and performance outcomes ( Gardner et al., 2017 ). Collectively, the quality of these relationships is a key indicator of effective sport parenting ( Harwood & Knight, 2015 ) and

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Sport Parent Perceptions of American Youth Football Costs, Benefits, and Safety

Andrew Romaine, J.D. DeFreese, Kevin Guskiewicz, and Johna Register-Mihalik

As head injuries in American football have received increasing publicity, the safety of the sport has become a great concern for parents nationwide. The purpose of this study was to examine perceived safety concerns in youth football using Eccles’ expectancy-value model (Eccles et al., 1983). We hypothesized perceived safety concerns to moderate relationships between parent perceptions of parent cost/benefit, child cost/benefit, and child motivation and enjoyment outcomes for football. Youth football parents (N = 105, M age = 42) completed valid and reliable online assessments of study variables. Regression analyses revealed child safety concerns (as rated by parents) to mediate, rather than moderate, the relationship between parent safety concerns and child cost perceptions (as rated by parents). Furthermore, safety concerns did not significantly associate with child achievement outcomes of motivation and enjoyment. Results provide valuable insight into parent and child attitudes toward youth football safety. Such knowledge may inform future educational interventions targeting sport safety promotion.

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The Current Youth Sport Landscape: Identifying Critical Research Issues

Daniel Gould

experiences conducting hundreds of coaching and parent-education sessions, conducting youth sport research, consulting with young athletes as a mental-skills-training professional, serving as a sport parent myself, and serving as a consultant to various youth sport organizations. My focus here is to