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Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Devon D. Brewer, and Darwyn E. Linder

Study 1 was conducted to explore athletes' perceptions of an athlete who consults a sport psychologist. Football players from two NCAA Division II colleges, one with and one without athletic counseling/sport psychology services, were asked to indicate how strongly they would recommend drafting a quarterback who had worked with his coaches, a sport psychologist, or a psychotherapist to improve his performance. Results indicated that in neither college did athletes derogate other athletes who were said to have consulted sport psychologists. Study 2 was conducted to examine athletes' perceptions of various sport and mental health professionals. Similarity judgments of the practitioners were analyzed using correspondence analysis, and rankings of the practitioners on three dimensions (expertise in sport-related, mental, and physical issues) were analyzed using cultural consensus analysis. Consistent with past research, these three variables were salient factors in subjects' similarity judgments of the practitioners.

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Charmaine DeFrancesco and Joseph J. Cronin

There is a significant need for identifying marketing techniques and strategies to enhance the career opportunities of the sport psychologist. Unfortunately, few sport psychologists have the entrepreneurial skills needed to reach alternative target markets. Professional service marketing can help the sport psychologist identify and develop strategies for employment and career opportunities. This paper examines current issues concerning the sport psychology profession, the role of marketing in professional service organizations, and a six-step marketing procedure for creating a professional marketing plan for the sport psychologist. The six steps of the marketing process include (a) situational analysis, (b) identification of service availability, (c) market assessment, (d) identification of decision-making roles, (e) marketing plan, and (f) evaluation process.

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Aura Goldman and Misia Gervis

Football report has facilitated greater awareness and action regarding sexist practices in the workplace. Although sport psychologists may have been respondents to these surveys, their experiences are not identifiable from the data. The problem of sexism is often oversimplified, and a reductionist approach

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William R. Low, Joanne Butt, Paul Freeman, Mike Stoker, and Ian Maynard

readers” ( Smith & Caddick, 2012 , p. 69). Accordingly, the present study attempted to prompt practitioners to consider delivery and make informed decisions about how they deliver PT. The study’s purpose was to explore perspectives of sport psychologists (SPs) and athletes on the characteristics of

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David Fletcher, James L. Rumbold, Robert Tester, and Matthew S. Coombes

This study extends stress research by exploring sport psychologists’ experiences of organizational stressors. Twelve accredited sport psychologists (6 academics and 6 practitioners) were interviewed regarding their experiences of organizational stress within their jobs. Content analysis involved categorizing the demands associated primarily and directly with their occupation under one of the following general dimensions: factors intrinsic to sport psychology, roles in the organization, sport relationships and interpersonal demands, career and performance development issues, and organizational structure and climate of the profession. A frequency analysis revealed that academics £AOS = 201) experienced more organizational stressors than practitioners £APOS = 168). These findings indicate that sport psychologists experience a wide variety of organizational stressors across different roles, some of which parallel those found previously in other professions. The practical implications for the management of stress for sport psychologists are discussed.

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Robert Weinberg, Valeria Freysinger, Kathleen Mellano, and Elizabeth Brookhouse

Most of the data obtained in studying mental toughness has come from athletes, coaches, and sometimes parents. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore sport psychologists’ experiences of building mental toughness and their perceptions of how coaches can build mental toughness in their athletes. A phenomenological approach to qualitative research guided the study. Semistructured qualitative interviews with 15 sport psychologists were conducted. A concept map was developed that illustrates the theme and subthemes that emerged from analysis of the interviews. As indicated, sport psychologists felt that coaches could build mental toughness in their athletes by behaving mindfully, which included putting athletes under adverse situations and providing (teaching) them with the mental skills to effectively cope with these adversities. These results both confirm and extend existing research on how to build mental toughness.

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Bernadette Schell, Joanne Hunt, and Colleen Lloyd

For this study, questionnaires were distributed to 607 elite athletes, coaches, officials, administrators, and sport psychologists in Canada. Variables were examined to predict the development of the sport psychology profession. It was hypothesized that elite athletes had sport-specific psychological needs requiring the services of sport psychologists. This proposition was supported by the athlete population; however, the sport psychologists themselves felt that the sport-specific knowledge was a secondary issue. The perception of sport psychology services was found to be more positive the more the services were employed. Although awareness of these services was high, the access to sport psychologists was low, a finding which was attributed to a lack of adequate funding. All subgroups tested felt that the role of the sport psychologist is growing in importance and is becoming essential to the elite sporting environment.

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Joy Griffin and Mary B. Harris

In this study, two groups of sport psychologists (N = 107) were surveyed six years apart to (a) identify sources of stress and rate the intensity of selected stressors, (b) investigate gender and other demographic variables associated with stress, and (c) determine if level of stress had changed over time. Self-reported stressors included time demands, interpersonal interactions, role conflict, limited resources, credibility, marketing/business issues, lack of support, professional isolation, politics, research, teaching loads, ethical issues, job security, and family demands. Time demands and institutional policies were rated as most stressful. Both gender and tenure status were related to stress, but age, years of experience, and number of hours worked per day did not correlate with intensity of stress. Based upon respondents’ beliefs and a comparison of the two samples we concluded that stress has increased over time.

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William F. Straub and Donna A. Hinman

The primary purpose of this study was to identify 10 leading sport psychologists in North America for the 1980s as perceived by a sample of professional sport psychologists. In alphabetical order, the 10 who were selected by their peers included Daniel Gould, Daniel Landers, Rainer Martens, Robert Nideffer, Bruce Ogilvie, Terry Orlick, Tara Scanlan, Robert Singer, Ronald Smith, and Robert Weinberg. The second purpose of the study was to profile these individuals and gain their perspectives on various issues facing the field of sport psychology in the 1990s. Issues regarding research focus, professional organizations, graduate training, and future directions for the field are discussed.

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Patricia A. Sullivan and Honey W. Nashman

The work-related satisfactions and stressors of experienced Olympic sport psychologists were examined. This study was designed to identify (a) specific intervention techniques used by the sport psychologist, (b) psychosocial concerns experienced by the sport psychologist, (c) concerns of the Olympic athlete, and (d) ethical issues related to communication with the media. Results revealed that these sport psychologists were satisfied both personally and professionally. In addition, the outcome category (winning/losing) reported as a primary concern by the athletes was addressed by the sport psychologists as an individual/personal issue, an interpersonal concern or a performance enhancement concern.