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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

In the early 1900s it was thought that exercise directly stimulated growth; however, by the end of the century it was suggested that young athletes were selected based on inherited physical attributes that enhanced performance success. In this paper, the physical attributes and normal patterns of growth of young athletes, both competitive and recreational, are discussed. Specifically, the paper addresses the question, Are young athletes born with physical attributes suited to a sport or does sport training produce these physical attributes? Variability in the tempo and timing of normal growth and development is addressed, and its relevance and influence on youth talent identification is discussed. This is pertinent in today’s context of sport specialization at relatively young ages. Regular physical training is only one of many factors that could affect child growth; however, distinguishing influences of training programs on growth from those associated with normal growth and development is problematic.

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Keith V. Osai, Travis E. Dorsch, and Shawn D. Whiteman

this goal, researchers should also consider whether target youth have more than one sibling in the household. Related to the above limitation, it is important to acknowledge that sport selection decisions do not belong wholly to the child. Indeed, other individuals in the sport context (e

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Bryan E. Denham

the adolescents learn to emulate. Harrison ( 1995 ) had earlier explained sport selection through cognitive self-schema, the development of which he attributed to factors such as television, modeling, and community expectations (see also, Harrison, Lee, & Belcher, 1999 ). To the extent that

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Toby Staff, Fernand Gobet, and Andrew Parton

hypothesis: it takes <10 years to achieve expertise, with disparities being a function of individual differences, in part related to talent ( Lombardo & Deaner, 2014 ; Staff et al., 2020 ) but also associated with sport selection ( Baker et al., 2005 ; Helsen et al., 1998 ). Medalists At the London

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Amanda Timler, Fleur McIntyre, and Beth Hands

( Spoor & Hoye, 2014 ) as well as use different coping strategies to deal with their perceived inadequacies in their motor competence ( Harter, 2012 ; Miyahara & Cratty, 2004 ). These include placing themselves out of sight during team sport selections, using humor to diffuse the situation ( Fitzpatrick

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Nima Dehghansai, Ross A. Pinder, and Joseph Baker

different stages of life (e.g., starting PS during youth vs. during late adolescence) contribute to athlete development. It is important to consider how impairment- and classification-related factors dictate opportunity, sport selection, and sporting experiences for PS athletes. Exploring questions of this

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Coimbra, Portugal 2 FCDEF, University of Coimbra, Portugal 3 Ministry of Education, 4FEFD, ULHT, Lisbon, Portugal. * Introduction : Body size is a central characteristic of sport selection in youth basketball and is also associated to playing position. Although basketball is not an