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Kathleen E. Bachynski

On November 1, 1959, a flying hockey puck broke the nose of goalie Jacques Plante. Thereafter, he insisted on wearing a face mask, a decision that signaled a broader introduction of safety equipment into North American ice hockey. This paper examines how head and facial protection became a standard requirement for playing hockey in North America at amateur and professional levels of the sport. During the mid-twentieth century, national governing bodies confronted growing safety concerns amid rising participation in organized hockey. Yet in the absence of league-wide mandates, players generally did not sustain helmet use. From the 1950s through the 1970s, masks for goalies and helmets and facial protection for skaters were mandated to protect against injuries. In the context of contemporary concussion concerns, the history of debates over hockey head and face protection illustrates the array of social, cultural, and organizational factors behind measures to protect athletes’ health.

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Bryce Dyer, Siamak Noroozi, Philip Sewell, and Sabi Redwood

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of lower-limb running prostheses and stakeholders’ perceptions of fairness in relation to their use in competitive disability sport. A Delphi study was conducted over three rounds to solicit expert opinion in a developing area of knowledge. High levels of consensus were obtained. The findings suggest that the prosthesis is defined as a piece of sporting equipment to restore athletes’ function to enable them to take part in disability sport. In addition, the panel determined that the development of this technology should be considered to be integral to the sport’s ethos. Crucially, prostheses technology should be monitored and have limits placed upon it to ensure fairness for both participants and stakeholders.

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Denise Azar, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon, and Verity Cleland


A number of factors have been identified as important correlates of physical activity (PA) among young women. Young women at risk of depression have a greater likelihood of being physically inactive and it is unknown whether correlates differ for women at risk and not at risk of depression.


A sample of 451 women aged 18 to 35 years self-reported leisure-time PA, enjoyment of and self-efficacy for walking and vigorous PA, barriers, social support, access to sporting/leisure facilities, and access to sporting equipment in the home. Depression risk was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (cut point ≥5). Logistic regression analyses examined differences in PA correlates among women at risk and not at risk of depression.


Self-efficacy for vigorous PA was statistically different between groups in predicting odds for meeting PA recommendations but odds ratios were similar across groups. No other significant interactions between correlates and depressive symptoms were identified.


The findings suggest few differences in the individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of PA among young women who are and are not at risk of depression. Further research is needed to confirm the existence of any PA correlates specific to this high-risk target group.

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Bilyana Mileva

assessment of sporting equipment and outdoor facilities that encourage physical activities at the schools, as well as expert opinion, the indicator was assigned a grade C. Community and Environment C A conservative approach was used. Although about 65% of children and youth declare that they have easy access

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Daniela Rodrigues, Cristina Padez, and Aristides M. Machado-Rodrigues

participation costs of girls’ organized sports was a barrier; however, this is not unique in the literature. Hardy et al 15 showed that parents were less likely to have purchased sporting equipment for their daughters compared with their sons, which may reflect some form of parental attributed importance of

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Angus A. Leahy, Narelle Eather, Jordan J. Smith, Charles H. Hillman, Philip J. Morgan, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Nilsson, Sarah A. Costigan, Michael Noetel, and David R. Lubans

predesigned HIIT workouts incorporating both aerobic-based and resistance-based exercises:  Gym HIIT—combination of aerobic movements (eg, skipping) and strength-based exercises (eg, squat jumps).  Sport HIIT—incorporating sporting equipment (eg, shuttle run while dribbling a basketball).  Class HIIT

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Katherine A. Bain, Shelby Baez, Kyle B. Kosik, Matthew C. Hoch, Johanna M. Hoch, Nathan F. Johnson, Richard D. Andreatta, and Phillip A. Gribble

sporting equipment, making it versatile and easily implemented in a variety of athletic venues. The FITLIGHT Trainer system has been previously used in athletics to examine VMRT 32 and demonstrates good reliability for lower-extremity VMRT tasks (intraclass correlation coefficient = .77−.83) 23 and a

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Jesper Karlsson, Åsa Bäckström, Magnus Kilger, and Karin Redelius

the correct sporting equipment, such as tennis rackets, footballs, or hockey sticks. As such, they were contextualized as sport savvy, able, and active. Various sideways angles were also used but rarely an angle in which the child was facing the camera, that is, immediately in front of the

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Sarpreet Kahlon, Kiah Brubacher-Cressman, Erica Caron, Keren Ramonov, Ruth Taubman, Katherine Berg, F. Virginia Wright, and Alicia J. Hilderley

room that had sporting equipment (e.g., pylons, soccer ball) to help make the environment more child friendly. Children were encouraged to interview on their own as the goal was to obtain their perspective, but there was an option for family members to be silent observers. All interviews were audio

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Nima Dehghansai, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker

, Pinder, & Baker, 2021 ). Evidently, it was also a key factor that athletes should consider before making a transition to another sport. Another key consideration was sporting equipment, as highlighted by Chris (athlete): “It’s tough, I mean we haven’t even gone into the barriers of just financial