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Andrew Parker and Andrew Manley

Traineeship within English professional football (soccer) has attracted much attention in recent years yet few studies have explored in any real depth the everyday workings of trainee footballing lives. This paper features the findings of two small-scale qualitative studies of football traineeship both of which were carried out at high profile English professional football clubs, one in 1993–94, the other in 2010–11. The paper uncovers the nuances of trainee experience in line with a series of theoretical assertions surrounding organizational discipline and control. It concludes by suggesting that while debate surrounding the design and delivery of traineeship within professional football has intensified over the past two decades, little appears to have changed with respect to the fundamental dynamics of organizational regimen.

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Durva Vahia, Adam Kelly, Harry Knapman and Craig A. Williams

Purpose: When exposed to the same external load, players receive different internal loads, resulting in varied adaptations in fitness. In adult soccer, internal training load is measured using heart rate (HR) and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) scales, but these have been underutilized in youth soccer. This study investigated the in-season variation in correlation between HR and sRPE estimations of training load for adolescent soccer players. Method: Fifteen male professional adolescent players were monitored for 7 months. Within-participant correlations and Bland–Altman agreement plots for HR and sRPE were calculated for each month to analyze variation over the season and for individual players to analyze the validity of the scale. Results: The monthly correlations ranged from r = .60 to r = .73 (P < .05) and the overall correlation was r = .64 (95% confidence interval, .60–.68; P < .001). Bland–Altman plots showed an agreement of methods. Conclusion: Results showed consistently large correlations for all months. sRPE is a consistent method of measure of internal training load for the entire season for youth soccer players. Validity analysis found no bias in sRPE measurements when compared with HR for all players in the study.

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Calum Alexander Arthur, Tim Woodman, Chin Wei Ong, Lew Hardy and Nikos Ntoumanis

Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass’s (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior–coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sports Academy (mean age = 14.28, SD = 1.40 years) completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), and indices of follower effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that athlete narcissism moderated the relationship between fostering acceptance of group goals and athlete effort and between high performance expectations and athlete effort. All the other transformational leader behaviors demonstrated main effects on follower effort, except for inspirational motivation.

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Daniel Martínez-Silván, Jaime Díaz-Ocejo and Andrew Murray


To analyze the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes.


Five adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 y) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q and Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for 1 season (37 wk) to detect signs of overtraining and underrecovery (RC-q) and early symptoms of lower-limb injuries (OSTRC-q). All overuse injuries were retrospectively analyzed to detect which variations in the questionnaires in the weeks preceding injury were best associated. Overuse incidence rates were calculated based on training exposure.


Lower-limb overuse injuries accounted for 73% of total injuries. The incidence rate for overuse training-related injuries was 10 injuries/1000 h. Strong correlations were observed between individual running exposure and overuse injury incidence (r 2 = .66), number of overuse injuries (r 2 = .69), and days lost (r 2 = .66). A change of 20% or more in the RC-q score in the preceding week was associated with 67% of the lower-limb overuse injuries. Musculoskeletal symptoms were only detected in advance by the OSTRC-q in 27% of the episodes.


Training exposure (especially running exposure) was shown to be related to overuse injuries, suggesting that monitoring training load is a key factor for injury prevention. Worsening scores in the RC-q (but not the OSTRC) may be an indicator of overuse injury in adolescent endurance runners when used longitudinally.

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Jeffrey D. James

of science and/or any philosophy of inquiry courses? Table 1 Doctoral Degree Programs in North America Location School Alabama Troy University Alabama United States Sports Academy Arkansas University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Colorado University of Northern Colorado Connecticut University of

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Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly

(Eds.), Physical education in secondary school: Researches, best practices, situation (pp.  329 – 334 ). Podgorica : Montenegro Faculty of Sport and Physical Education of University of Montenegro, Montenegrin Sports Academy and FIEP . Shephard , R.J. ( 2018 ). A history of health & fitness

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith and Louis Passfield

. Methods Participants Sample 1 Participants from Sample 1 were 212 junior athletes (158 males and 54 females) recruited from sports academies. Participants’ mean age was 17.2 years ( SD  = 0.9; range = 16–19 years). Participants were involved in different sports (111 in soccer; 36 in rugby; 28 in

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Stewart Cotterill

Scientist, 29 , 18 – 19 . Cotterill , S.T. ( 2012 ). Experiences working in an elite sports academy: A case study in professional cricket . Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, 8 ( 1 ), 45 – 53 . Cotterill , S.T. ( 2017 ). Working as a sport psychology consultant in elite professional cricket

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Fernando Segura Millan Trejo, Mark Norman and Chirstophe Jaccoud

Sport, 52 ( 5 ), 1 – 17 . Parker , A. , & Manley , A. ( 2017 ). Goffman, identity and organisational control: Elite sports academies and social theory . Sociology of Sport Journal, 34 ( 3 ), 211 – 222 . doi:10.1123/ssj.2016-0150 10.1123/ssj.2016-0150 Peterson , G. ( 2015 ). Connecting

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Joshua I. Newman

sports academies and social theory . Sociology of Sport Journal, 34 ( 3 ), 211 – 222 . doi: 10.1123/ssj.2016-0150 Parviainen , J. ( 2018 ). Embodying industrial knowledge: An epistemological approach to the formation of body knowledge in the fitness industry . Sociology of Sport Journal, 35 ( 4