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Manuel Lugo, William M. Sherman, Gregory S. Wimer and Keith Garleb

This study examined the effects of consuming the same amount of carbohydrate in solid form, liquid form, or both on metabolic responses during 2 hrs of cycling at 70% peak VO2 and on cycling time-trial performance. Subjects consumed 0.4 g carbohydrate/kg body mass before and every 30 min during exercise. The liquid was a 7% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage and the solid was a sports bar (1171 kJ) in which 76%, 18%, and 6% of total energy was derived from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively. Blood obtained at baseline, before exercise, and every 30 min was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lactate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma volume. There were no differences among the treatments for the blood parameters. Total carbohydrate oxidation and time-trial performance were also similar among treatments. Under thermoneutral conditions with equal liquid inges-tion, the metabolic and performance responses are similar when consuming carbohydrate as a liquid, solid, or in combination during prolonged, moderate intensity cycling.

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Martin C. Waller, Deborah A. Kerr, Martyn J. Binnie, Emily Eaton, Clare Wood, Terreen Stenvers, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Carmel Goodman and Kagan J. Ducker

used were sports drinks (70%), caffeine (48%), protein powder (42%), and sports bars (42%; see Figure  2 ). Within the AIS supplement classifications, athletes most frequently reported using sports foods (90%), medical supplements (55%), and performance supplements (55%). Figure 2 —Percentage of cohort

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Victor Lun, Kelly A. Erdman, Tak S. Fung and Raylene A. Reimer

Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country’s eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M =19.99 ± 5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained ≥16 hr/wk, most competing in “power” based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken ≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such antidoping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

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Louise M. Burke, Julie A Winter, David Cameron-Smith, Marc Enslen, Michelle Farnfield and Jacques Decombaz

The authors undertook 2 crossover-designed studies to characterize plasma amino acid (AA) responses to the intake of 20 g of protein. In Study 1, 15 untrained and overnight-fasted subjects consumed 20 g protein from skim milk, soy milk, beefsteak, boiled egg, and a liquid meal supplement. In Study 2, 10 fasted endurance-trained subjects consumed 20 g protein from a protein-rich sports bar at rest and after a 60-min submaximal ride. Plasma AA concentrations were measured immediately before and for 180 min after food ingestion using a gas-chromatography flame-ionization detection technique. A pharmacokinetic analysis was undertaken for profiles of total AAs (TAA), essential AAs, branched-chain AAs (BCAA), and leucine. Although area-under-the-curve values for plasma TAA were similar across protein sources, the pattern of aminoacidemia showed robust differences between foods, with liquid forms of protein achieving peak concentrations twice as quickly after ingestion as solid protein-rich foods (e.g., ~50 min vs ~100 min) and skim milk achieving a significantly faster peak leucine concentration than all other foods (~25 min). Completing exercise before ingesting protein sources did not cause statistically significant changes in the pattern of delivery of key AAs, BCAAs, and leucine apart from a 20–40% increase in the rate of elimination. These results may be useful to plan the type and timing of intake of protein-rich foods to maximize the protein synthetic response to various stimuli such as exercise.

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Frederik Ehlen, Jess C. Dixon and Todd M. Loughead

? Peddie: Well, I have always been interested in the sports bar concept. I actually started a project when I was at TSN that was going to be called TSN Sports Bar. However, they scrapped it after I left; but I had never forgotten about it. At the time, we were also really underserved from a merchandise

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

Examples Comments: Risk-Assessments Sports foods: Specialized products used to provide a practical source of nutrients when it is impractical to consume everyday foods Sports drink, sports gel, liquid meal, sports confectionery, sports bar Most sports foods, but not all, are low risk for contamination

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Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons

during the event: hot breakfast items, breakfast cereal, ready-made salads, hot desserts, snack and sports bars, and high-energy drinks. Fruit had the highest median score of 3.0 ( average ). A total of 27 responses to the open-ended questions were received from the desk top review, and 67 from the

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

supplement (drink form) ✓ ✓✓ Sports gel ✓✓ Protein supplement (drink form) ✓ ✓ ✓✓ ✓ Sports bars ✓ ✓ ✓ Sports confectionary ✓✓ Liquid meal supplements ✓ ✓✓ ✓ ✓ Advantages of sports foods • Sports foods can contain only those ingredients that are actually needed during exercise. Foods in the general food

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

aggression displayed at sport venues, sports bars, and other locations on a regular basis. Such findings have significant implications for the development of theory and literature on sport fan behavior. In the sections that follow, we discuss these findings and their theoretical implications. Subsequently

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Thomas P. Oates

-athlete to launch a signature athletic shoe. Two months later, Jay-Z opened the upscale sports bar, The 40/40 Club, on 25th St. in the Flatiron District of Manhattan. For Jay-Z, as for many other hip hop artists, the accumulation and conspicuous display of wealth is imagined, as least in part, as an act of