This study explores sex and racial segregation within television sports broadcasting. It uses logit log-linear analysis to examine the relationship between job classifications within sports broadcasting and such explanatory variables as sex and race. The results show that women are concentrated in competition-level reporting and reporting but are underrepresented as studio analysts and play-by-play announcers. People of color are most likely to be found doing competition-level reporting, followed by studio analysis. They are least likely to work as play-by-play announcers. In addition, people of color are virtually limited to broadcasting baseball, basketball, and football. Although Whites also cover these three sports, they occupy practically all of the jobs covering other sports. The findings regarding sex and race support the social closure perspective that argues that women and people of color would be concentrated in lower positions within an occupation.
Barbara Thomas Coventry
Ryan Matthew Brewer
Fabrice Desmarais and Toni Bruce
This article explores how local pressures intersect to produce differing broadcasts in 2 cultural contexts. This is achieved via a cross-cultural analysis of a decade of televised rugby union matches between France and New Zealand and interviews with leading commentators in both countries. The authors argue that although the overarching commercial imperative to capture audiences might be the same in both countries, and despite global tendencies toward homogenized presentation of sports events, there are local differences in expectations about which kinds of audiences should be captured, and these lead to different practices and emphases in the live broadcasts. The authors suggest that in each country, broadcasts are the result of a complex set of pressures that interact to produce broadcasts with “local” flavor and characteristics.
R. Glenn Cummins, Norman E. Youngblood and Mike Milford
Sport telecasts are frequently the showcase and testing ground for innovative broadcast technologies. One particularly novel example is ESPN’s coverage of college athletics via its multiscreen, or mosaic, format. This experiment tested the impact of its visual complexity by comparing the response of fans high and low in team identification to this format versus a traditional presentation of dull and exciting game play. For highly identified spectators, this format was a detriment to their appreciation of game play, whereas the format had little impact for viewers with low levels of team identification. Moreover, independent of degree of team identification, viewers reported a more negative evaluation of this technique than of a traditional broadcast, and results were consistent regardless of the dull or exciting nature of game play.
Mark Ludwig and Christoph Bertling
Though visual features such as slow motion, camera angle, or the cutting rate are considered to have great importance for professional media presentation of sports broadcasts and their influence on viewers, there has as yet been little research on the effects of fundamental visual parameters on viewer perception in the field of sport communication. In its primary step, this study researches the effect cutting rates have on the liking of live soccer broadcasts. To this end, an experiment (between-subjects design) with three groups (N = 92) was conducted. All participants received an identical excerpt of a soccer match; however, the number of cuts was systematically altered. A MANCOVA revealed significant effects—for example, a lower cutting rate leads the consumer to perceive less aesthetic appeal and the influences of effects are moderated by fandom. Implications are discussed.
Dustin A. Hahn, Matthew S. VanDyke and R. Glenn Cummins
effort to calculate. A deeper understanding of the presence and direction of base-rate data in sports broadcasting is necessary given the many modern motivations for such information ( Billings & Ruihley, 2013 ; Brown et al., 2012 ; Farquhar & Meeds, 2007 ; Gantz & Wenner, 1995 ; Lee et al., 2013
Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington
period also saw the increasing popularity of sports broadcasting, especially college football. College sport administrators were leery of the live broadcasting of college football games due to the potential losses in ticket revenues. However, some universities, particularly the University of Pennsylvania
Joseph H. Moore
conducted to test the deployment of the experiment and to measure reliability. Students in an Advanced Sports Broadcasting course took part in the pilot study in the same manner in which the final experiment would be presented. Given comments from the students in a debriefing session after the assessment
Thomas Horky, Marianna Baranovskaa, Christoph G. Grimmer, Honorata Jakubowska and Barbara Stelzner
– Inhalte [Sport media and media sport. Effects, use, content] (pp. 147 – 159 ). Berlin, Germany : Vistas . Desmarais , F. , & Bruce , T. ( 2009 ). The power of the local in sports broadcasting: A cross-cultural analysis of rugby commentary . International Journal of Sport Communication, 2 ( 2
Adam Karg, Heath McDonald and Civilai Leckie
sports broadcasting . London, UK : Taylor & Francis . 10.4324/9780203003855 Gratton , C. , & Taylor , P. ( 2002 ). Economics of sport and recreation . London, UK : Routledge . Gujarati , D. ( 1970 ). Use of dummy variables in testing for equality between sets of coefficients in two linear