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James O. Davis

Several studies report that psychological factors, especially stress, are related to sports injuries, and while stress management techniques have often been found to facilitate sport performance, these reports have not included information about the effects of stress intervention on injury rates. This article reexamines two sport psychology programs by investigating the injury data collected by athletic training personnel before, during, and after two university varsity teams practiced progressive relaxation during team workouts. Major findings include a 52% reduction in injuries for swimmers and a 33% reduction in serious injuries for football players. Discussion focuses on methods of injury data collection by sport psychologists, questions about the nature of the stress/injury relationship, and possible interventions.

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Jim Taylor and Shel Taylor

This article addresses the essential role that pain plays in the rehabilitation of sports injury. It will describe important information and approaches that applied sport psychologists can use to more effectively manage pain in injured athletes. The article includes a brief discussion of the most accepted theories of pain. Types of pain that injured athletes may experience and how they can learn to discriminate between them will be discussed. The article will also consider how pain can be a useful tool as information about injured athletes’ current status in recovery and the need to modify their rehabilitation regimens. The value of measuring pain will be examined with emphasis on determining a simple and easy means of assessing pain. Next, the article will examine why nonpharmacological pain management may be a useful adjunct to pharmacological pain control. Then, a brief description of the most commonly used pain medications and a detailed description of common nonpharmacological pain-management strategies will be furnished. A discussion of how nonpharmacological pain management can be incorporated into the traditional rehabilitation process will be offered. Finally, the article will describe the role that sport psychologists can play in the management of sport injury-related pain. The objective of this article is to provide applied practitioners with the knowledge and tools necessary to assist injured athletes in mitigating the pain they will experience during recovery as a means of facilitating their rehabilitation and return to sport.

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Konstantinos Fousekis, Evdokia Billis, Charalampos Matzaroglou, Konstantinos Mylonas, Constantinos Koutsojannis and Elias Tsepis

Context:

Elastic bandages are commonly used in sports to treat and prevent sport injuries.

Objective:

To conduct a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of elastic bandaging in orthopedic- and sports-injury prevention and rehabilitation.

Evidence Acquisition:

The researchers searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) with keywords elastic bandaging in combination, respectively, with first aid, sports injuries, orthopedic injuries, and sports injuries prevention and rehabilitation. Research studies were selected based on the use of the term elastic bandaging in the abstract. Final selection was made by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the full text. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed clinical trials written in English on the effects of elastic bandaging for orthopedic-injury prevention and rehabilitation.

Evidence Synthesis:

Twelve studies met the criteria and were included in the final analysis. Data collected included number of participants, condition being treated, treatment used, control group, outcome measures, and results. Studies were critically analyzed using the PEDro scale.

Conclusions:

The studies in this review fell into 2 categories: studies in athletes (n = 2) and nonathletes (n = 10). All included trials had moderate to high quality, scoring ≥5 on the PEDro scale. The PEDro scores for the studies in athletes and nonathletes ranged from 5 to 6 out of 10 and from 5 to 8 out of 10, respectively. The quality of studies was mixed, ranging from higher- to moderate-quality methodological clinical trials. Overall, elastic bandaging can assist proprioceptive function of knee and ankle joint. Because of the moderate methodological quality and insufficient number of clinical trials, further effects of elastic bandaging could not be confirmed.

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Ayanna N. Franklin, Tara N. Dooley, Monique A. Foster and James B. Winges

Injuries contrast with the overwhelmingly positive benefits of sports participation for female athletes, with estimates of a third or more of all female athletes sustaining injury in any given season. Media headlines convey the impression that female athletes are more vulnerable to sports injuries than male athletes are. This observation led to our first purpose, which was to use evidence from the sports injury surveillance literature to examine the facts about female athlete risks of injury and compare these risks to those of male athletes. In light of Gill and Kamphoff’s (2010) observation that we largely ignore or underrepresent female experiences in the sport and exercise psychology literature, our second purpose was to highlight examples of the psychological, behavioral, and social aspects of female athletes’ injury experiences, and provide comparisons to male experiences within this realm of sports medicine psychology. These evidence-based observations guide our concluding recommendations for injury reporting, prevention, and rehabilitation roles of those in the media and sports professions.

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Rob Gray

Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls.

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Column-editor : Neil Curtis

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Neil Curtis

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Ronald P. Pfeiffer

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Zachary Y. Kerr, Andrew E. Lincoln, Shane V. Caswell, David A. Klossner, Nina Walker and Thomas P. Dompier

–10 Through 2014–15 a Time in season Competition Practice Total b Pre 123 45,718 45,840 Regular 24,886 62,810 87,696 Post 2151 7224 9375 Total 27,160 115,752 142,911 a Data originates from the Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention Injury Surveillance Program, 2009–10 through 2014–15. b Sums