Scholars have recognized the importance of leadership in the sport industry; early sport leadership studies emerged in the 1970s. To date, however, there has been no comprehensive review of the scholarly leadership studies in sport management. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the sport management leadership literature from the 1970s to the present day, to outline what has been learned, and then, drawing from this synthesis, to articulate a preliminary conceptual model capturing how leadership operates in sport management. A number of clear themes in sport management leadership research and conceptual thinking have emerged, with the proposed conceptual model advancing several leadership antecedents and processes unique to sport. Intriguing directions for sport management leadership scholarship are also illuminated. Although progress has been made, many questions and gaps remain that require focused attention from sport management leadership scholars.
Jon Welty Peachey, Yilun Zhou, Zack J. Damon and Laura J. Burton
Mark F. Stewart, Constantino Stavros, Pamm Phillips, Heather Mitchell and Adrian J. Barake
In 1949 the Australian Football League (AFL) introduced a distinctive father–son rule, which allows its member teams to prioritize the recruitment of the sons of former players who had played in a minimum number of games with that team. This paper reveals that some teams have been able to access a statistically significant advantage via this rule, confirming and quantifying that this unique exception compromised the AFL’s reverseorder player draft. In more recent times, through complex reforms, this advantage has been significantly dissipated. Discussion presents this rule as a conundrum for managers as despite potentially compromising the draft, it provides opportunities for off-field marketing communications strategies.
Michael Odio and Shannon Kerwin
The senior internship is a critical developmental experience for sport management students transitioning into their careers. Despite the internship’s role as a career development tool, previous research has suggested that the experience may deter students from continuing to pursue a career in the sports industry (Cunningham, Sagas, Dixon, Turner, & Kent, 2005). The present study uses decision-making theory and a longitudinal approach to improve on previous efforts to examine changes in students’ affective commitment to the vocation and intent to pursue a career in the vocation as a result of the internship experience. Results of the structural model show that challenge, supervisor support, and role conflict significantly influence students’ career decision making.
R. Douglas Manning
The Los Angeles Football Club (LAFC) will begin play in 2018 as a new franchise in Major League Soccer (MLS). LAFC will replace Chivas USA as the second MLS franchise in the Los Angeles area. Chivas USA competed in 10 seasons of MLS, beginning with the 2005 season. Chivas USA was modeled after its parent organization, Club Deportivo Guadalajara (otherwise known as Guadalajara or Chivas Guadalajara) of the first-division Mexican League. MLS is highly regarded for its diversity initiatives, and Chivas USA was to focus on reaching the large Hispanic/Latino audience in the Los Angeles area. The club played alongside the Los Angeles Galaxy, one of MLS’s inaugural franchises, in the Home Depot Center (now StubHub Center) in Carson, California.
Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner and Jacob K. Tingle
Building on the current sport officiating research, this study puts forth the Referee Retention Scale. Through a three-phase process, the researchers developed a valid and reliable scale to predict sport officials’ job satisfaction and intention to continue. The first phase consisted of instrument development, whereas the second phase included field testing of referees (n = 253). After exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis, the resultant refined scale from Phases 1 and 2 was then administered to 979 referees in Phase 3. Phase 3 results using confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the seven-factor, 28-item Referee Retention Scale was a valid and reliable tool for measuring and predicting referee retention. The results highlight the importance of considering a variety of factors associated with the referee experience, which include administrator consideration, intrinsic motives, mentoring, remuneration, sense of community, lack of stress, and continuing education. A discussion on how the Referee Retention Scale can help administrators manage and retain sport officials is included.
Dawn Anderson-Butcher, Allison Riley, Anthony Amorose, Aidyn Iachini and Rebecca Wade-Mdivanian
Maximizing youth experiences in community sport programs is critical, particularly for vulnerable and/or marginalized youth who may have limited access and opportunity to these experiences. Using second-order latent growth modeling, this study explores the impact of a community sport program, the LiFE Sports Camp, on the development of social and sport skills among vulnerable youth. The importance of a sense of belonging as a key mechanism that contributes to youth outcomes also is examined. The findings of this research point to the value of community sport that is strategically designed to promote both sport and social outcomes in youth, as well as highlights the role of belonging in these contexts. Implications for sports management leaders and practitioners are discussed.
China is a country undergoing dramatic change. The national sports management system developed under Communism more than 40 years ago has changed direction and now effectively promotes the development of a sports industry for commercial benefit. Sport is expected to stand on its own feet and not rely on State support. Chinese sport today has been turned into a money-making proposition. As living standards rise, as leisure increases, as the profit motive is encouraged, and as the economy becomes global, China is becoming a major outlet for commercial sports opportunities of every kind. This paper describes recent changes in Chinese sport and explores the consequences of these changes. Finally, it provides guidance for Western entrepreneurs and business people who wish to take advantage of the rapidly expanding sports market in China.
Simon R. Walters, Julia Hallas, Sean Phelps and Erika Ikeda
Even though technology has become a key driver in preparing sports management students for an increasingly globalized industry, it is unclear whether the affordances of these technologies contribute to the transformation of the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a learner-generated video assessment develops students’ critical thinking and engagement with the theoretical concepts taught in an undergraduate second-year Sociology of Sport course. Data were gathered using a qualitative case study approach. Students found the video assessment enjoyable; it promoted critical thinking and engagement with theory. However, students were less interested in technology-based assessment than the need for courses to align learning strategies and assessment methods to the graduate capabilities required to transform their discipline in the workplace. We argue that it is this alignment that will lead to a transformation in the learning environment and quality student engagement, rather than the video technology itself.
Chang Wan Woo and Michael K. Davis
Sports-related programs in higher education need to educate students in the professional use of evolving communication technologies. In addition, students need to develop soft skills, such as problem solving and critical thinking, while improving their practical use of technology. The purpose of this article is to introduce the use of fantasy sports in a sports management class, more specifically a sports public relations class, and discuss how students perceived the use of fantasy sports in course assignments. We explain how the use of fantasy sports assignments promoted social constructivist learning of students and helped students develop soft skills. We also identify the pedagogical challenges the fantasy sports assignments presented to students and instructors. We also offer summaries of students’ class reflections to demonstrate how such reflections echoed course learning outcomes.
The purpose of this research was to design a curriculum for graduate-level preparation of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I and II athletic directors. A survey instrument, consisting of a composite of 41 courses and based on R. Hay's model, Proposed Sports Management Curriculum and Related Strategies, was mailed to the full population of NCAA Division I and II athletic directors (N=569). A total of 307 completed surveys were returned from directors of men's, women's and merged athletic departments. Respondents rated each course using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from not important (1) to essential (5). There were 17 courses that were rated very important according to the acceptance criterion of a mean of 3.5 or greater. Results of a 2 × 3 (Division × Program type) factorial ANOVA, with alpha adjusted from .05 to .001 by Bonferroni's contrasting procedure, indicated that there were no differences in determined levels of course importance. It was concluded that a graduate curriculum to prepare a collegiate director of athletics should be implemented through the collaborative effort of an interdisciplinary faculty and that the program should culminate with a doctoral degree.