Sarah Kelly and Michael Ireland
Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 16 ( 2 ), 2 – 21 . doi:10.1108/IJSMS-16-02-2015-B002 10.1108/IJSMS-16-02-2015-B002 Kelly , S.J. , Ireland , M. , Mangan , J. , & Williamson , H. ( 2016 ). It works two ways: Impacts of sponsorship alliance upon sport and sponsor image . Sport
Zack P. Pedersen
Daniel Funk, Daniel Lock, Adam Karg and Mark Pritchard
Sport consumer behavior (SCB) research continues to grow in both popularity and sophistication. A guiding principle in much of this research has focused on the nature of sport-related experiences and the benefits sport consumers derive from these experiences. This emphasis has generated new knowledge and insights into the needs and wants of sport consumers. Although these efforts have contributed to the field’s understanding of SCB, the vast majority of this research has centered on psychological phenomena and the evaluative and affective components of these sport experiences. Approaches to this work have also narrowed, with SCB research predominately relying on cross-sectional studies and attitudinal surveys to collect information. This has resulted in limited findings that seldom account for how various situational or environmental factors might influence attitudinal data patterns at the individual and group level. This special issues seeks to deepen our understanding of SCB by providing seven papers that demonstrate or validate findings using multiple studies or data collections.
In 2002, Ty Votaw, then commissioner of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA), introduced a marketing plan called the Five Points of Celebrity, which included performance, approachability, passion and joy, appearance, and relevance. Votaw endorsed the Five Points of Celebrity as a way for women golfers to succeed in a competitive sports and entertainment marketplace. Rhetorical criticism of the Five Points of Celebrity using the framework of gender as performance reveals the underlying homophobic notions of the plan. First, Votaw presents the plan as a way to cater to what fans in a sports and entertainment marketplace desire. Second, the plan supports athletes’ displaying femininity to compensate for displaying traditionally masculine characteristics while participating in sport. Third, presentation of femininity emerges as a concomitant presentation of heterosexuality to subvert the “image problem” of LPGA of athletes being perceived as lesbians.
espnW is ESPN, Inc.’s, first entity targeted at female fans and female athletes. espnW portrays female athletes as competent sportswomen and serious competitors as measured by quantitative analysis of photographs and articles on the site. A more critical look at the discourse, however, reveals 2 major themes. First, divergent dialogues are used in espnW articles to reify relations of power and privilege for male athletes. Divergent dialogues appear in articles on espnW in the forms of descriptive language used for female athletes, mention of nonsporting topics that have little or nothing to do with athleticism, and direct references to physical/personality attributes. Second, positioning espnW as “additive content” to ESPN for female fans relies on ideas of natural sexual difference and choice. If the institution of sport is defined by masculinity and partially upheld by traditional sports journalism, women are excluded.
R. Douglas Manning
The Los Angeles Football Club (LAFC) will begin play in 2018 as a new franchise in Major League Soccer (MLS). LAFC will replace Chivas USA as the second MLS franchise in the Los Angeles area. Chivas USA competed in 10 seasons of MLS, beginning with the 2005 season. Chivas USA was modeled after its parent organization, Club Deportivo Guadalajara (otherwise known as Guadalajara or Chivas Guadalajara) of the first-division Mexican League. MLS is highly regarded for its diversity initiatives, and Chivas USA was to focus on reaching the large Hispanic/Latino audience in the Los Angeles area. The club played alongside the Los Angeles Galaxy, one of MLS’s inaugural franchises, in the Home Depot Center (now StubHub Center) in Carson, California.
Nicholas Hirshon and Craig Davis
Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum, a sports and entertainment arena in Long Island, New York, encountered a public relations challenge in the 1990s. Nassau Coliseum, one of a few high-capacity venues in the New York metropolitan area, hosted the New York Islanders of the National Hockey League and concerts featuring headliners such as the Grateful Dead, New Kids on the Block, and Frank Sinatra. Nevertheless, the arena became a target for the world’s first all-sports radio station, WFAN 660 AM in New York City. WFAN hosts perpetuated the image of a dreary “Nassau Mausoleum” with dim lighting, long bathroom and concession lines, and a leaky roof. By placing students in the decision-making situation that confronted the Nassau Coliseum executives, this case explores various approaches to reputation management at sports venues.
Yann Abdourazakou, Xuefei (Nancy) Deng and Gashaw Abeza
. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 14 ( 2 ), 95 – 111 . doi:10.1108/IJSMS-14-02-2013-B003 10.1108/IJSMS-14-02-2013-B003 Ellison , N. , Steinfield , C. , & Lampe , C. ( 2007 ). The benefits of Facebook “friends”: Exploring the relationship between college students’ use of online