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Nicholas D. Myers, Deborah L. Feltz, Félix Guillén and Lori Dithurbide

The purpose of this multistudy report was to develop, and then to provide initial validity evidence for measures derived from, the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were collected from referees (N = 1609) in the United States (n = 978) and Spain (n = 631). In Study 1 (n = 512), a single-group exploratory structural equation model provided evidence for four factors: game knowledge, decision making, pressure, and communication. In Study 2 (n = 1153), multiple-group confirmatory factor analytic models provided evidence for partial factorial invariance by country, level of competition, team gender, and sport refereed. In Study 3 (n = 456), potential sources of referee self-efficacy information combined to account for a moderate or large amount of variance in each dimension of referee self-efficacy with years of referee experience, highest level refereed, physical/mental preparation, and environmental comfort, each exerting at least two statistically significant direct effects.

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Kevin Young

This paper examines the view that there is no serious fan violence in North America. North American sport has shown a stubborn resilience in maintaining its “squeaky clean” image despite the fact that fan disorders occurred throughout the twentieth century, continue to show signs of consistency and institutional patterning, and have prompted extensive measures from sports officials, police, and authorities. The paper explores nature and extent issues, the varied responses by the authorities, preliminary explanatory approaches, and the possibility that a particular style of media coverage may have contributed to misunderstandings about the phenomena. Characterizing the ongoing fascination in the sociology of sport with a variety of forms of violence done by and to athletes as appropriate but unbalanced, the paper recommends a revival in research momentum on North American sports crowd disorder which remains a socially significant but understudied topic.

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Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner and Jacob K. Tingle

their current knowledge and skill level ( Read, 2000 ). According to Barry Mano, the president of the National Association of Sports Officials, recruiting new referees continues to be difficult, and there is a growing need to find ways to attract more men and women into officiating ( Stevens, 2016

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Tom Gibbons

simultaneously challenges the authority of sports officials and governing bodies as fans expect perfection in decision-making. Chapter 4, “Transcendence after Technological Doping,” analyses controversies regarding technological doping (the use of a technological aid to gain an unfair advantage) in the context

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Emerson Franchini

specificity principle is assured. 18 Therefore, in the present review, the main time–motion studies presenting the work-to-rest ratio of high-level combat sports official matches, the energy systems contributions, and HIIT protocols are summarized, and indications on how to prescribe these protocols using

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

relate to sex dimorphism. Sex Differences in Performance Our comparison of sex differences in performance is based on publicly available data from world-record performances collected from the respective sportsofficial Web sites in February 2017, as well as scientific peer-reviewed papers on events

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Stiliani Ani Chroni, Frank Abrahamsen, Eivind Skille and Liv Hemmestad

education 1-year study programs, four held bachelor degrees, and one held a master’s degree). The sample reflects gender representation in sports officials in Norway ( Ottesen et al., 2010 ). Procedures, Data Collection, and Analysis The sports directors were invited by electronic mail, informing them about

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Udi Carmi and Orr Levental

honorary head of the Israel Olympic Committee, Nahum Het, informing him that Palestine would not be allowed to participate in the Olympic Games because that country no longer existed. 70 The Israel Olympic Committee was not registered as an international institution for the sports officials had not

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Adrien Bouchet, Thomas W. Doellman, Mike Troilo and Brian R. Walkup

, T. , Pruitt , S. , & Clark , J. ( 2005 ). The relationship between major-league sportsofficial sponsorship announcements and the stock prices of sponsoring firms . Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33 , 401 – 412 . doi: 10.1177/0092070305277385 10.1177/0092070305277385 Cousens

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April Henning and Jörg Krieger

and a Congress, struggled over the future and direction of the sport. During the key decades of transformation in the 1980s and 1990s, the organization was led by its president, Italian sports official Primo Nebiolo. Pressed by external changes favoring athlete pay, the risk of losing control over