been an ongoing matter for sports managers and researchers, revolving around economic, legal, social, and ethical issues sports organizations should constantly address and strategically incorporate in their business activities. Notwithstanding the importance of economic viability and legitimacy from
Stefan Walzel, Jonathan Robertson and Christos Anagnostopoulos
Yuan Wang and Shuhua Zhou
Social media have been increasingly used by sports organizations to communicate with the public. This study explored the Twitter-using practices of National Basketball Association (NBA) clubs (N = 30) in the U.S. in building relationships with their fans during the 2013–14 season. Specifically, it focused on how these clubs used Twitter to build professional, personal, and community relationships through a content analysis of 5,561 tweets on their official Twitter sites. The results suggested that NBA clubs tended to use social media to develop professional relationships with their publics via sharing information and promoting products. There were significant relationships between relationship dimensions and the number of retweets and favorites from Twitter followers. Sports organizations should use social media effectively to strengthen the professional, personal, and community relationships with their publics.
. Future research must take a ‘deeper dive’ to shine a spotlight on the structure, expectations, and culture within the work environments of sports organizations, and connect these to a lack of inclusion of underrepresented groups within coach (developer) workforces. An intersectional lens must also be
Lionel Frost, Margaret Lightbody and Abdel K. Halabi
Australian Football clubs have traditionally been seen as contributing social benefits to the rural communities in which they are embedded. Declining numbers of participants, both players and volunteers, suggest that this role may not be as strong today. Critical explorations of the extent to which football has driven social inclusion and exclusion in such environments emphasizes a historic masculine culture of drinking and violence that segregates and marginalizes women and children. Less is known about the contemporary strategic efforts of clubs to use social capital to support their activities, and whether the resources they generate have positive impacts on social inclusion in the wider community. We use evidence from the Parliament of Victoria’s Inquiry into Country Football (2004) to explore the current focus of rural Australian Football clubs regarding social inclusion, in light of changes occurring in society and rural towns in the 21st century.
David Cruise Malloy and James Agarwal
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence that significant others have upon the perception of ethical climate in a Canadian provincial nonprofit sport federation. The study was theoretically based upon the concepts of differential association and role-set configuration as well as the ethical climate dimensions developed in a non-profit context by Agarwal and Malloy (1999). The results demonstrate some support for the earlier empirical and theoretical findings that suggest that members of non-profit organizations may not be influenced by internal strategies of control and conformity. While this study was based upon a single provincial sport federation, the authors cautiously draw attention to the implications that the results may have for other non-profit organizations.
Arthur T. Johnson
Changes in the political and economic environment of sports organizations are taking place, especially at the levels of state and local government. These changes will impact negatively the nature of the sport-community relationship. The manner in which sports administrators respond to these changes may ultimately determine the viability of many sports organizations. This article suggests that sports administrators must be sensitive to these changes and must adjust their views of the sport-community relationship and their negotiating strategies accordingly. This especially will be important for sports administrators representing organizations that do not have major league status and, therefore, lack power at the negotiating table.
By referring to criteria established by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for including sports in the Olympic Games and considering the maturation of the sports movement for the disabled, it is reasonable to conclude that certain sports reserved exclusively for the disabled can be made eligible for inclusion in the Olympic Games as medal events. A confounding factor in pursuit of inclusion in the Olympic Games is the uncritical willingness of the established international sports organizations for the disabled to amalgamate in order to communicate as a single voice with the IOC. Created in the process is a formal institutionalization of sports programs for the disabled. Despite invitations to stage demonstration events in recent Olympic Games, sports organizations have failed to take measures necessary to qualify for full integration into the Olympic movement. Reorganization is called for on the basis of versions of sports that would lend themselves to integration.
This case study considers how audience labor performed via information and communication technologies (ICTs) helps sports organizations monitor professional athletes. Three incidents are examined—(a) National Basketball Association (NBA) player Greg Oden participating in a pickup (casual) basketball game while he was rehabilitating an injured knee, (b) photographs posted on the Internet that captured National Football League player Matt Leinart posing with several young women in a hot tub and holding a beer bong, and (c) a video posted on YouTube that depicted NBA player Josh Howard disparaging the U.S. national anthem. The case study explores how ICTs enable sports organizations to capitalize on free labor provided by audience members to intensify surveillance of professional athletes and how fans’ ability to comment on news coverage of these stories reinforces organizational control, further reifying professional athletes as commodities.
Marit Sørensen and Nina Kahrs
The Norwegian Olympic Committee and Confederation of Sports’ commitment to integrate disability sport in the sport organizations for the able-bodied was evaluated based upon a description of an ideal, inclusive sports organization. Data were collected primarily through interviews and questionnaires. The results indicate that the integration process proceeded more slowly than originally intended. There were still unresolved matters on the structural/organizational level, and the sports federations’ officials were uncertain about the extent of their responsibility and the role of the new sports organization for persons with a disability. More relevant competence was needed in the organization. All organizations reported improved attitudes toward individuals with a disability and indicated that integration was a demanding enterprise.
Joris Drayer and Daniel A. Rascher
Teaching a graduate level sport finance class can be quite complex. With a variety of concepts such as pricing, budgeting, and public funding, to convey in a limited amount of time, new forms of pedagogy are necessary to assist instructors as this technologically-advanced generation enters into academia. Subsequently, technology has been created to apply basic concepts related to finance to the complexity of a professional sports organization. One such program is the Oakland A’s Baseball Business Simulator. Through interviews and “emotional recall” (Ellis, 2004), this evaluative case study seeks to determine the effectiveness of this technology within this environment.