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Stefan Walzel, Jonathan Robertson, and Christos Anagnostopoulos

been an ongoing matter for sports managers and researchers, revolving around economic, legal, social, and ethical issues sports organizations should constantly address and strategically incorporate in their business activities. Notwithstanding the importance of economic viability and legitimacy from

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Cindy Lee, Hyejin Bang, and David J. Shonk

in the belief that business is a part of society ( Breitbarth & Harris, 2008 ), and as such, sports teams were urged to contribute to their local community and society. Hamil and Morrow ( 2011 ) pointed out that professional team sports organizations (PTSOs) provide an ideal setting to examine CSR

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Yuan Wang and Shuhua Zhou

Social media have been increasingly used by sports organizations to communicate with the public. This study explored the Twitter-using practices of National Basketball Association (NBA) clubs (N = 30) in the U.S. in building relationships with their fans during the 2013–14 season. Specifically, it focused on how these clubs used Twitter to build professional, personal, and community relationships through a content analysis of 5,561 tweets on their official Twitter sites. The results suggested that NBA clubs tended to use social media to develop professional relationships with their publics via sharing information and promoting products. There were significant relationships between relationship dimensions and the number of retweets and favorites from Twitter followers. Sports organizations should use social media effectively to strengthen the professional, personal, and community relationships with their publics.

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Leanne Norman

. Future research must take a ‘deeper dive’ to shine a spotlight on the structure, expectations, and culture within the work environments of sports organizations, and connect these to a lack of inclusion of underrepresented groups within coach (developer) workforces. An intersectional lens must also be

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Lionel Frost, Margaret Lightbody, and Abdel K. Halabi

Australian Football clubs have traditionally been seen as contributing social benefits to the rural communities in which they are embedded. Declining numbers of participants, both players and volunteers, suggest that this role may not be as strong today. Critical explorations of the extent to which football has driven social inclusion and exclusion in such environments emphasizes a historic masculine culture of drinking and violence that segregates and marginalizes women and children. Less is known about the contemporary strategic efforts of clubs to use social capital to support their activities, and whether the resources they generate have positive impacts on social inclusion in the wider community. We use evidence from the Parliament of Victoria’s Inquiry into Country Football (2004) to explore the current focus of rural Australian Football clubs regarding social inclusion, in light of changes occurring in society and rural towns in the 21st century.

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David Cruise Malloy and James Agarwal

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence that significant others have upon the perception of ethical climate in a Canadian provincial nonprofit sport federation. The study was theoretically based upon the concepts of differential association and role-set configuration as well as the ethical climate dimensions developed in a non-profit context by Agarwal and Malloy (1999). The results demonstrate some support for the earlier empirical and theoretical findings that suggest that members of non-profit organizations may not be influenced by internal strategies of control and conformity. While this study was based upon a single provincial sport federation, the authors cautiously draw attention to the implications that the results may have for other non-profit organizations.

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Niels B. Feddersen, Robert Morris, Louise K. Storm, Martin A. Littlewood, and David J. Richardson

bodies (NGB) in the United Kingdom. Doing so involved focusing on interorganizational systemic power relations between NGBs and governing sports organizations (GSO; e.g., UK Sport). The substantial contribution of this article is that it adds empirical insights into the nuances of systemic and

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Michele Verdonck, Jacquie Ripat, Peita-Maree Clark, Florin Oprescu, Marion Gray, Lisa Chaffey, and Bridie Kean

that creates the conditions for all who wish to participate in the sport. Understanding these perspectives on RI could be useful for sport policymakers, managers, administrators, sports organizations, and athletes interested in further developing the sport of WCBB. Notes 1. Person-first disability

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Arthur T. Johnson

Changes in the political and economic environment of sports organizations are taking place, especially at the levels of state and local government. These changes will impact negatively the nature of the sport-community relationship. The manner in which sports administrators respond to these changes may ultimately determine the viability of many sports organizations. This article suggests that sports administrators must be sensitive to these changes and must adjust their views of the sport-community relationship and their negotiating strategies accordingly. This especially will be important for sports administrators representing organizations that do not have major league status and, therefore, lack power at the negotiating table.

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Stan Labanowich

By referring to criteria established by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for including sports in the Olympic Games and considering the maturation of the sports movement for the disabled, it is reasonable to conclude that certain sports reserved exclusively for the disabled can be made eligible for inclusion in the Olympic Games as medal events. A confounding factor in pursuit of inclusion in the Olympic Games is the uncritical willingness of the established international sports organizations for the disabled to amalgamate in order to communicate as a single voice with the IOC. Created in the process is a formal institutionalization of sports programs for the disabled. Despite invitations to stage demonstration events in recent Olympic Games, sports organizations have failed to take measures necessary to qualify for full integration into the Olympic movement. Reorganization is called for on the basis of versions of sports that would lend themselves to integration.