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Selasi Attipoe, Pieter A. Cohen, Amy Eichner and Patricia A. Deuster

Many studies have found that some dietary supplement product labels do not accurately reflect the actual ingredients. However, studies have not been performed to determine if ingredients in the same dietary supplement product vary over time. The objective of this study was to assess the consistency of stimulant ingredients in popular sports supplements sold in the United States over a 9-month period. Three samples of nine popular sports supplements were purchased over the 9-month period. The 27 samples were analyzed for caffeine and several other stimulants (including adulterants). The identity and quantity of stimulants were compared with stimulants listed on the label and stimulants found at earlier time points to determine the variability in individual products over the 9-month period. The primary outcome measure was the variability of stimulant amounts in the products examined. Many supplements did not contain the same number and quantity of stimulants at all time points over the 9-month period. Caffeine content varied widely in five of the six caffeinated supplements compared with the initial measurement (–7% to +266%). In addition, the stimulants—synephrine, octopamine, cathine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, strychnine, and methylephedrine—occurred in variable amounts in eight of the nine products. The significance of these findings is uncertain: the sample size was insufficient to support statistical analysis. In our sample of nine popular sports supplements, the presence and quantity of stimulants varied over a 9-month period. However, future studies are warranted to determine if the variability found is significant and generalizable to other supplements.

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Mike A. Perko, Ronald D. Williams Jr. and Marion W. Evans

Sports supplements use is reality in the 21st century and the global sports world is enmeshed daily in media coverage and debate. Traditionally much of the focus has been on male athletes but the tide is shifting toward the rapidly evolving culture of the female athlete. Little is known about the use rates, reasons, and effects of sports performance supplements among females. This article examines female athletes and sports supplements with emphasis on historical influence, realities for the female athlete, risks involved in performance enhancement, and future recommendations.

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Michael Atkinson

Canadian men flock to gyms to enlarge, reshape, and sculpt their bodies. Fitness centers, health-food stores, muscle magazines, and Internet sites profit by aggressively selling “sports supplements” to a wide range of exercising men. Once associated with only the hardcore factions of male bodybuilders (Klein, 1995), designer protein powders, creatine products, energy bars, ephedrine, amino acids, diuretics, and growth hormones such as androstenedione are generically marketed to men as health and lifestyle-improving aids. This paper explores how a select group of Canadian men connect the consumption of sports supplements to the pursuit of “established” masculinity. I collected ethnographic data from 57 recreational athletes in Canada and interpreted the data through the lens of figurational sociology. Analytic attention is thus given to how contemporary discourses and practices of supplementation are underscored by middle-class understandings of masculine bodies in a time of perceived “gender crisis” in Canada.

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Elliot R. Cooper, Kristine C.Y. McGrath, XiaoHong Li and Alison K. Heather

cell androgen bioassays to screen 112 sports supplements from the Australian market. The 112 supplements were randomly chosen to cover the range of sports supplements, including powders, capsules, and tablets. The only inclusion factor was that the labeled ingredients did not include an androgen

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Louise Capling, Janelle A. Gifford, Kathryn L. Beck, Victoria M. Flood, Gary J. Slater, Gareth S. Denyer and Helen T. O’Connor

composition “And [it depends] what their goals are. It could be that you’re deliberately manipulating their carbohydrate at certainly meals of the day, you know, because you’re trying to alter their body composition.” G4-A  Sports supplements “You can give examples there. Because I think the big thing is

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Anna Baylis, David Cameron-Smith and Louise M. Burke

Many athletes report using a wide range of special sports foods and supplements. In the present study of 77 elite Australian swimmers, 99% of those surveyed reported the use of these special preparations, with 94% of swimmers reporting the use of non-food supplements. The most popular dietary supplements were vitamin or mineral supplements (used by 94% of the group), herbal preparations (61%), and creatine (31%). Eighty-seven percent of swimmers reported using a sports drink or other energy-providing sports food. In total, 207 different products were reported in this survey. Sports supplements, particularly supplements presented as pills or other non-food form, are poorly regulated in most countries, with little assurance of quality control. The risk of an inadvertent “positive doping test” through the use of sports supplements or sports foods is a small but real problem facing athletes who compete in events governed by anti-doping rules. The elite swimmers in this survey reported that information about the “doping safety” of supplements was important and should be funded by supplement manufacturers. Although it is challenging to provide such information, we suggest a model to provide an accredited testing program suitable for the Australian situation, with targeted athlete education about the “sports safety” of sports supplements and foods.

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Gregory Shaw, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

Thirty nine elite Australian swimmers (13 AIS, 26 OTHER) completed a standardized questionnaire regarding their supplement use during a pre competition camp. The data were compared with a similar study conducted 11 years earlier (11 AIS, 23 OTHER) and framed around the classification system of the Sport Supplement Program of the Australian Institute of Sport. The prevalence of supplement use remained constant over time (2009: 97%, 1998: 100%). However, the current swimmers used a greater number of dietary supplements (9.2 ± 3.7 and 5.9 ± 2.9; p = .001), accounted for by an increase in the reported use of supplements with a greater evidence base (Sports Foods, Ergogenics, and Group B supplements). In contrast, fewer supplements considered less reputable (Group C and D) were reported by the 2009 cohort (0.7 ± 1.0 and 1.6 ± 1.3; p = .003). AIS swimmers reported a greater use of Ergogenics (4.3 ± 1.8 and 3.1 ± 1.7; p = .002), and less use of Group C and D supplements overall (0.8 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 1.2; p = .012), which was explained primarily by a smaller number of these supplements reported by the 2009 group (1998 AIS: 1.5 ± 1.4, 2009 AIS: 0.2 ± 0.6; p = .004). Although the prevalence of supplement use has not changed over time, there has been a significant increase in the number and type of products they are using. The potential that these changes can be attributed to a Sports Supplement Program merit investigation.

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Gary Slater, Benedict Tan and Kong Chuan Teh

The supplementation practices of elite athletes in Singapore were studied using an anonymous questionnaire. Information was sought on not only the type of supplements used but also dosage, rationale for use, and other factors that might influence supplement use including selected demographic parameters and sources of information relating to supplements. Data was collected from 160 athletes across a spectrum of 30 sports. Use of supplements was widespread, with 77% of respondents acknowledging use of at least 1 product. Respondents ingested a total of 59 different supplements, with each athlete using on average 3.6 ± 0.3 different products. Sports drinks, caffeine, vitamin C, multivitamin/mineral supplements, and essence of chicken were some of the most commonly ingested products, confirming that while vitamin/mineral supplements are popular, sports supplements and traditional/herbal preparations were also well accepted. Respondents preferred to source information pertaining to supplements from “significant others” and other readily accessible sources. A small number of respondents acknowledged the use of International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned or restricted substances, highlighting the need for athletes to consult sports medicine professionals with specialist knowledge of dietary supplements in advance of initiating any supplementation regime.

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Martin C. Waller, Deborah A. Kerr, Martyn J. Binnie, Emily Eaton, Clare Wood, Terreen Stenvers, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Carmel Goodman and Kagan J. Ducker

participants. Approval for this research was granted by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. Table 1 Demographic Characteristics and Prevalence of Use of Nutritional and Sports Supplements by Age, Scholarship Category, and Sports Category Overall Supplement users Supplement nonusers Total

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

by the advertisements of those who profit from the sale of dietary supplements. When looking at the use of supplements by elite athletes, it is important to bear in mind that sports supplements are a relatively small part of a multi-billion-dollar industry that depends primarily on fitness