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Eva A. Jaarsma, Rienk Dekker, Steven A. Koopmans, Pieter U. Dijkstra and Jan H.B. Geertzen

We examined barriers to and facilitators of sports participation in people with visual impairments. Participants registered at Royal Visio, Bartiméus, and the Eye Association were invited to complete a questionnaire (telephone or online). Six hundred forty-eight of the invited participants (13%) completed the questionnaire, and 63% of the respondents reported sports participation. Walking (43%), fitness (34%), and cycling (34%) were frequently mentioned sports. Costs, lack of peers/buddies, and visual impairment were negatively associated with sports participation, whereas higher education and computer (software) use were positively associated. The most important personal barrier was visual impairment; transport was the most important environmental barrier. Active participants also mentioned dependence on others as a personal barrier. The most important personal facilitators were health, fun, and social contacts; support from family was the most important environmental facilitator. To improve sports participation in people with visual impairments, the emphasis in a sports program should be on the positive aspects of sports, such as fun, health, and social contacts.

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Chris Englert and Alex Bertrams

In the present article, we analyzed the role of self-control strength and state anxiety in sports performance. We tested the hypothesis that self-control strength and state anxiety interact in predicting sports performance on the basis of two studies, each using a different sports task (Study 1: performance in a basketball free throw task, N = 64; Study 2: performance in a dart task, N = 79). The patterns of results were as expected in both studies: Participants with depleted self-control strength performed worse in the specific tasks as their anxiety increased, whereas there was no significant relation for participants with fully available self-control strength. Furthermore, different degrees of available self-control strength did not predict performance in participants who were low in state anxiety, but did in participants who were high in state anxiety. Thus increasing self-control strength could reduce the negative anxiety effects in sports and improve athletes’ performance under pressure.

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Robert F. Potter and Justin Robert Keene

An experiment investigates the impact of fan identification on the cognitive and emotional processing of sports-related news media. Two coaches were featured; one conceptualized as negatively valenced the other positively. Participants completed a fan identification scale before stimuli presentation. While watching the press conferences, heart rate, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle activity were recorded as indices of cognitive resource allocation, emotional arousal, and aversive motivation activation respectively. Self-report measures were collected after each stimulus. Results show that highly identified fans process sports-related news content differently than moderate fans, allocating more cognitive resources and exhibiting greater aversive reactions to the negatively valenced coach. Comparisons between the self-report and psychophysiology data suggest that the latter may be less susceptible to social desirability response bias when emotional reaction to sports messages are concerned.

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Sandra A. Ham, Judy Kruger and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

Given the evidence that regular physical activity produces substantial health benefits, participation in sports, exercise, and recreation is widely encouraged. The objective of this study was to describe participation in sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities among US adults.

Methods:

Data from 2 national surveys of respondents age 18 years and older were analyzed. Respondents to the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2003 through 2005 (N = 45,246) reported all activities on 1 randomly selected survey day. Respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 through 2004 (N = 17,061) reported leisure-time physical activities in the 30 days before the interview.

Results:

One-quarter of adults participated in any sport, exercise, or recreational activity on a random day, and 60.9% of adults participated in any leisure-time activity in the previous 30 days. The most common types of activities were walking, gardening and yard work, and other forms of exercise. The sports and recreational activities had typical durations of 1/2 to 3 hours per session, and the exercise activities typically lasted 1 hour or less.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of sports, exercise, and recreational physical activities is generally low among US adults; exercise is the most commonly reported type of activity.

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Sarah E. Martiny, Ilka H. Gleibs, Elizabeth J. Parks-Stamm, Torsten Martiny-Huenger, Laura Froehlich, Anna-Lena Harter and Jenny Roth

Based on research on stereotype threat and multiple identities, this work explores the beneficial effects of activating a positive social identity when a negative identity is salient on women’s performance in sports. Further, in line with research on the effects of anxiety in sports, we investigate whether the activation of a positive social identity buffers performance from cognitive anxiety associated with a negative stereotype. Two experiments tested these predictions in field settings. Experiment 1 (N = 83) shows that the simultaneous activation of a positive (i.e., member of a soccer team) and a negative social identity (i.e., woman) led to better performance than the activation of only a negative social identity for female soccer players. Experiment 2 (N = 46) demonstrates that identity condition moderated the effect of cognitive anxiety on performance for female basketball players. Results are discussed concerning multiple identities’ potential for dealing with stressful situations.

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Aaron Nelson, Nathan Koslakiewicz and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

Surgical reconstruction is recommended for athletes following an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. 1 Unfortunately, nearly 25% of young athletes who return to sports following an ACL reconstruction suffer a second ACL injury during their career. 2 Interestingly, in many instances, the

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Leanne Sawle, Jennifer Freeman and Jonathan Marsden

The incidence of pelvic/groin injury is particularly high in sports such as Gaelic (24%), 1 ice hockey (10%–11%), 2 and Association Football (49%), 3 and research has highlighted the challenges affecting the diagnosis and management of these injuries. 4 – 6 Pelvic belts, a form of external

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Tamara May, Nicole Rinehart, Lisa Barnett, Trina Hinkley, Jane McGillivray, Helen Skouteris, Delwyne Stephens and Debra Goldfinch

based interventions for children with ASD. Sports participation can provide benefits beyond increased physical activity and improved FMS, such as improved psychological health and social functioning due to the social aspects of participation ( Eime, Young, Harvey, Charity, & Payne, 2013 ). Hence

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Pooja S. Tandon, Tyler Sasser, Erin S. Gonzalez, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Dimitri A. Christakis and Mark A. Stein

with sports participation in children. 12 However, children with ADHD may encounter unique challenges to participating in PA and sports, including increased rates of noncompliant and disruptive behaviors. 13 This is concerning because engaging in PA (through sports or otherwise) is associated with

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Thomas Hausegger, Christian Vater and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

players in the periphery. This finding demonstrates that, in the highly dynamic context of interactive sports, visual information pickup is not only about focusing on a relevant object with foveal vision but also about optimally utilizing peripheral vision. The advantage of peripheral vision is that it