innovation as a surprising omission in economic theorizing and marketing management. This lack of focus on innovation is particularly evident in service-oriented industries, including the sport industry ( Winand et al., 2013 ). Sports clubs must continually innovate through applying new services, processes
Interactive Mechanisms to Improve Service Innovation Among Sports Clubs: A Consumer Perspective
Mohsen Behnam, Mikihiro Sato, Bradley J. Baker, and Mahdiyeh Jalili
Social Integration of People With a Migration Background in European Sports Clubs
Siegfried Nagel, Karsten Elmose-Østerlund, Jenny Adler Zwahlen, and Torsten Schlesinger
European societies face important challenges when it comes to the social integration of people with a migration background, particularly in times of refugee crisis (e.g., Morsut & Kruke, 2018 ). Voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) are often promoted as an important medium to meet these challenges, as
Building and Sustaining Organizational Capacity in Voluntary Sports Clubs: Findings From a Longitudinal Study
Karsten Elmose-Østerlund, Graham Cuskelly, Jens Høyer-Kruse, and Christian Røj Voldby
The concept of organizational capacity (OC) and the processes of building capacity in voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) have been the subject of a growing body of research in the sport management literature, particularly over the past decade or so ( Millar & Doherty, 2016 ). The reasons for an
The Importance of the Leaders’ and Coaches’ Motivating Style for Sports Club Members’ Motivation to Participate in Organized Sports: Study of Trickle-Down Effects
Tom De Clerck, Annick Willem, Sofie Morbée, Delfien Van Dyck, and Leen Haerens
.e., sports participation in sports clubs) can provide additional benefits such as improved peer relations, social skills, and diminished shyness ( Findlay & Coplan, 2008 ). Given the number of benefits associated with organized sports participation, several studies have focused on the antecedents of the members
Organizational Effectiveness of Finnish Sports Clubs
The purpose of this study was to analyze the organizational effectiveness of Finnish sports clubs (n = 835) from an open systems perspective. Five dimensions of effectiveness were examined, including the ability to obtain resources, internal atmosphere, efficiency of the throughput process, realization of aims, and general level of activity. All dimensions except internal atmosphere were intercorrelated. The findings indicated that many features of effectiveness were largely linked to the size of the membership, ideological orientation, and organizational environment. Success orientation was found to be incompatible with a relaxed atmosphere.
Increasing Human Capital of Coaches—An Investigation Into Individual and Organizational Factors
Christoph Breuer, Svenja Feiler, and Lea Rossi
nonprofit sports clubs in Germany can obtain a variety of licenses and qualifications. The qualification system offers licenses for trainers (not sport specific) and coaches (sport specific) on four levels: C, B, A, or diploma licenses. The latter is the higher level license. Whereas the license Level A and
Transfer of Training After an Organizational Intervention in Swedish Sports Clubs: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective
Andreas Stenling and Susanne Tafvelin
Leadership development programs are common in sports, but seldom evaluated; hence, we have limited knowledge about what the participants actually learn and the impact these programs have on sports clubs’ daily operations. The purpose of the current study was to integrate a transfer of training model with self-determination theory to understand predictors of learning and training transfer, following a leadership development program among organizational leaders in Swedish sports clubs. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that autonomous motivation and an autonomy-supportive implementation of the program positively predicted near transfer (i.e., immediately after the training program) and that perceiving an autonomy-supportive climate in the sports club positively predicted far transfer (i.e., 1 year after the training program). This study extends previous research by integrating a transfer of training model with self-determination theory and identified important motivational factors that predict near and far training transfer.
Delivering Sports Participation Legacies at the Grassroots Level: The Voluntary Sports Clubs of Glasgow 2014
Eilidh H.R. Macrae
Voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) provide the primary opportunities for organized community sport in the UK and thus hold the responsibility for delivering on mega-event sports participation legacies. This study presents findings from open-ended questionnaires and interviews conducted in two phases (Phase 1—Spring, 2013; Phase 2—Summer, 2015) with representatives from a sample (n = 39) of VSCs to understand their ability to deliver on the participation legacy goals of London 2012 and the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. Thematic analysis of the data outlined three themes where support for VSCs should be placed when planning future mega-events: building VSC capacity, retaining members in the long-term, and promoting general visibility of the VSC throughout the event. Bid teams who hope to use mega-events as catalysts for sports participation increases should direct funding and guidance toward VSCs to ensure they have the tools, knowledge, and capacity to deliver on national sports participation ambitions.
Machiavellianism in Children in Dutch Elementary Schools and Sports Clubs: Prevalence and Stability According to Context, Sport Type, and Gender
Paul Baar and Theo Wubbels
The majority of research on children’s peer aggression has focused exclusively on the school context. Very few studies have investigated peer aggression in sports clubs. The prevalence and stability of peer aggression, prosocial behavior, and resource control strategies for children participating in three types of sports (martial arts, contact, and noncontact sports) were examined in two contexts: the sports club and the elementary school. We distinguished aggressive children with (i.e., Machiavellians) and without prosocial tendencies (i.e., coercive-aggressive children). Self-reports about experiences in the two contexts where gathered from 1,425 Dutch elementary school students (717 boys and 708 girls, fourth to sixth grade, mean age 11.25 years) who were participating in a sports club. We found roles for resource control strategies to be rather stable across contexts. The findings did not provide support for the “enhancement” assumption in these contexts with regard to martial arts participants.
Potential of a Sports Club–Based Exercise Program for Improving Physical Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Christian Lackinger, Sandra Haider, Lana Kosi, Juergen Harreiter, Yvonne Winhofer, and Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
Although the infrastructure of Austrians’ sports clubs is well developed, exercise classes for people suffering from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not exist. This feasibility study evaluates factors for participating in target group specific exercise courses (TGSEC) and changes in physical activity.
This intervention study was performed in 22 communities of Austria. Initial TGSEC were offered to T2DM patients over 2 months. Participants were surveyed at 4 time points with a questionnaire: before the program, 2, 6 and 12 months after the initial questionnaire.
881 patients aged 59.0 (SD: 9.6) years took part in TGSEC. At baseline a lack of suitable exercise groups prevented 51% from being active. 58% were encouraged by the medical sector. After 12 months the weekly time spent on exercise training was increased from 1.40 (SD: 2.55) hours to 2.15 (SD: 3.00) hours (P < .001). The dropout rate during the first 2 months was 12.9%. The rate of return for the 12 months questionnaire was 42%.
TGSEC provided by sports clubs attract people suffering from T2DM and effectively enhance physical activity.