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Yi-Ju Tsai, Chieh-Chie Chia, Pei-Yun Lee, Li-Chuan Lin, and Yi-Liang Kuo

, pelvic floor muscles, paraspinal and gluteal muscles is generally referred to as the core. 6 Studies focusing on sports performance sometimes extend the core to include the shoulders and hips. 7 Although passive elements (bone and soft tissues) contribute to core stability, core stability is

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Chris Englert and Alex Bertrams

In the present article, we analyzed the role of self-control strength and state anxiety in sports performance. We tested the hypothesis that self-control strength and state anxiety interact in predicting sports performance on the basis of two studies, each using a different sports task (Study 1: performance in a basketball free throw task, N = 64; Study 2: performance in a dart task, N = 79). The patterns of results were as expected in both studies: Participants with depleted self-control strength performed worse in the specific tasks as their anxiety increased, whereas there was no significant relation for participants with fully available self-control strength. Furthermore, different degrees of available self-control strength did not predict performance in participants who were low in state anxiety, but did in participants who were high in state anxiety. Thus increasing self-control strength could reduce the negative anxiety effects in sports and improve athletes’ performance under pressure.

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Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, and Laurent Bosquet

anaerobic and aerobic pathways to power production highly variable. In many instances, both explosive actions relying mostly on instantaneous muscular strength and power, and more repetitive actions of a predominantly aerobic nature, can make significant contributions to sports performance. It was recently

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Warren B. Young

The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

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Michael R. McGuigan, Glenn A. Wright, and Steven J. Fleck

The use of strength training designed to increase underlying strength and power qualities in elite athletes in an attempt to improve athletic performance is commonplace. Although the extent to which strength and power are important to sports performance may vary depending on the activity, the associations between these qualities and performance have been well documented in the literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of strength training research to determine if it really helps improve athletic performance. While there is a need for more research with elite athletes to investigate the relationship between strength training and athletic performance, there is sufficient evidence for strength training programs to continue to be an integral part of athletic preparation in team sports.

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A. Rui Gomes, Alexandre Gonçalves, Catarina Morais, Clara Simães, and Rui Resende

leadership congruence between conceptual and practical cycles of leadership predict the leadership efficacy (measured in terms of athletes’ perception of sports performance). H2. Optimal Leadership Profile. The optimal leadership profile moderates the relationship between the leadership cycles congruency

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Jing Wen Pan, Pui Wah Kong, and John Komar

In sports, the evaluation of performance can be helpful for training ( D’Isanto et al., 2019 ) as sportspersons benefit from the feedbacks cornering error information about sports performance ( Winstein & Schmidt, 1990 ). When evaluating sports performance and identifying errors, video

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Cristiane B.B. Antonelli, Charlini S. Hartz, Sileno da Silva Santos, and Marlene A. Moreno

need for high activation of the upper limbs for displacement of the wheelchair, a factor that contributes to greater fatigue of the inspiratory muscles and early loss of sports performance. Studies evaluating the effects of IMT on athletes with wheelchair-related disabilities reported the efficiency of

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Jana Hagen, Carl Foster, Jose Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jos J. de Koning, Richard P. Mikat, Charles R. Hendrix, and John P. Porcari

Music is widely used as an ergogenic aid in sport, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness during closedloop athletic events. In order to determine the effectiveness of music as an ergogenic aid, well-trained and task-habituated cyclists performed 10-km cycle time trials either while listening to self-selected motivational music or with auditory input blocked. There were no statistically significant differences in performance time or physiological or psychological markers related to music (time-trial duration 17.75 ± 2.10 vs 17.81 ± 2.06 min, mean power output 222 ± 66 vs 220 ± 65 W, peak heart rate 184 ± 9 vs 183 ± 8 beats/min, peak blood lactate 12.1 ± 2.6 vs 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol/L, and final rating of perceived exertion 8.4 ± 1.5 vs 8.5 ± 1.6). It is concluded that during exercise at competitive intensity, there is no meaningful effect of music on either performance or physiology.

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Jeanick Brisswalter and Christophe Hausswirth