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Kenneth S. Clarke

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Robert Weinberg

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Desmond McEwan, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Steven R. Bray

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of depleted self-control strength on skill-based sports task performance. Sixty-two participants completed the following: a baseline dart-tossing task (20 tosses), with measures of accuracy, reaction time, and myoelectrical activity of the arms taken throughout; a self-control depletion (experimental) or a nondepletion (control) manipulation; and a second round of dart tossing. As hypothesized, participants in the experimental condition had poorer mean accuracy at Round 2 than control condition participants, and a significant decline in accuracy from Round 1 to Round 2. Experimental condition participants also demonstrated poorer consistency in accuracy compared with control condition participants at Round 2 and a significant deterioration in consistency from Round 1 to Round 2. In addition, consistency in reaction time improved significantly for the control group but not for the experimental group. The results of this study provide evidence that ego depletion effects occur in the performance of a skill-based sports task.

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Anthony Koschmann

perform. Previously unexamined, this moderating effect builds on sports psychology, motivation, and administrator research. The proposed effects were that higher ability coaches have a positive main effect on player performance, positively moderate salary on performance, and negatively moderate contracts

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Ross A. Pinder, Keith Davids, Ian Renshaw, and Duarte Araújo

Egon Brunswik proposed the concept of “representative design” for psychological experimentation, which has historically been overlooked or confused with another of Brunswik’s terms, ecological validity. In this article, we reiterate the distinction between these two important concepts and highlight the relevance of the term representative design for sports psychology, practice, and experimental design. We draw links with ideas on learning design in the constraints-led approach to motor learning and nonlinear pedagogy. We propose the adoption of a new term, representative learning design, to help sport scientists, experimental psychologists, and pedagogues recognize the potential application of Brunswik’s original concepts, and to ensure functionality and action fidelity in training and learning environments.

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John L. Woodard and Annalise A.M. Rahman

Recent progress in technology has allowed for the development and validation of computer-based adaptations of existing pencil-and-paper neuropsychological measures and comprehensive cognitive test batteries. These computer-based assessments are frequently implemented in the field of clinical sports psychology to evaluate athletes’ functioning postconcussion. These tests provide practical and psychometric advantages over their pencil-and-paper counterparts in this setting; however, these tests also provide clinicians with unique challenges absent in paper-and-pencil testing. The purpose of this article is to present advantages and disadvantages of computer-based testing, generally, as well as considerations for the use of computer-based assessments for the evaluation of concussion among athletes. Furthermore, the paper provides suggestions for further development of computerized assessment of sports concussion given the limitations of the current technology.

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Mildred Mary Witt

Sustaining an injury can be traumatic for a collegiate student-athlete. Serious injuries are often accompanied by complex emotional and psychological responses that warrant a mental health consultation and clinical intervention. Anxiety and stress-related concerns are increasingly prevalent in the student-athlete population, particularly among female student-athletes. This paper reviews the relevant injury, sports psychology, and counseling literature pertaining to student-athletes, with a focus on female collegiate athletes. Utilizing a hypothetical case illustration, the counseling needs of the injured female student-athlete are discussed. Three therapeutic interventions: expressive writing, cognitive processing therapy, and Koru Meditation, an evidencedbased curriculum for teaching mindfulness skills, are proposed to reduce anxiety, injury-related stress, and other mental health concerns in this population.

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Mark H. Anshel

The purpose of this article is to describe the construction (Phase 1) and external validation (Phase 2) of a behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) for identifying and measuring competencies for basketball referees (BARS-BR). In Phase 1, BARS-BR was developed by deriving a consensus of two panels of individuals (N = 20), with varying degrees of knowledge and experience in basketball officiating, about the proper competencies of basketball referees. The panels generated 13 performance categories (or competencies), each including at least three behavioral examples (or “anchors”). Phase 2 consisted of two stages: (a) obtaining external validity of BARS-BR by 212 practicing skilled basketball referees by indicating their support for the performance categories and behavioral examples, and (b) assessing performance effectiveness of high-skilled and novice referees on each of the 13 BARS performance competencies. The results lent support to the validation of the BARS-BR for assessing competence in basketball officiating. Implications for using the BARS technique in sports psychology are discussed.

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Aïna Chalabaev, Philippe Sarrazin, Jeff Stone, and François Cury

This research investigated stereotype threat effects on women’s performance in sports and examined the mediation of this effect by achievement goals. The influence of two stereotypes—relative to the poor athletic ability and the poor technical soccer ability of women—were studied. Fifty-one female soccer players were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, introducing the task as diagnostic of athletic ability, technical soccer ability, or sports psychology. Next, they filled out a questionnaire measuring achievement goals and performed a soccer dribbling task. Results showed that compared with the control condition, females’ performance significantly decreased in the athletic ability condition and tended to decrease in the technical soccer ability condition. Moreover, participants endorsed a performance-avoidance (relative to performance-approach) goal when the stereotypes were activated. However, this goal endorsement was not related to performance. The implications of these results for understanding the role of stereotypes in gender inequalities in sports are discussed.

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Anthony M.J. Maranise

This article discusses the use of superstition and religious rituals within sport. While the popular view among skeptics seems to be that religious ritual is nothing more than superstition, I argue that while there admittedly are many similarities, there also exist major differences which separate superstition and religious ritual into distinct entities. The realm of sport is one widely known for the numerous exhibitions of both superstition and religious ritual. The examples of sport-related superstition and religious ritual are so numerous that they have even gained noted media attention in the past two decades. Thus, I situate both terms within the practical framework of sport participation. From this foundation, I define both terms in context and begin to examine the effects on athletes’ individual holistic development arguing that religious ritual leads ultimately to a greater holistic development than does superstition. Holistic development is examined in four aspects which are comprised of physiology, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality. The positive effects of religious ritual as applied within athletics are mentioned in each aforementioned category. I approach the topic from the perspective of the psychology of religion, sports psychology, as well as Judeo-Christian theological concepts regarding religious ritual. The numerous positive benefits of religious ritual over superstition within athletics lead to a final argument that religious ritual provides significant meaning to the lives of athletes in a way which superstition is simply unable.