, Magnusen, and Kim ( 2015 ) show that the fit between sponsor and sponsee, the audience’s perceptions of sponsor motives (e.g., self-centered or other-centered), and the degree of involvement individuals have with their sports team hold the most influence over sponsorship outcomes (e.g., sponsor patronage
Nicolas Pontes, Vivian Pontes, Hyun Seung Jin, and Chris Mahar
Jessica Barrett, Alicia Pike, and Stephanie Mazerolle
-sufficient, and kind. However, they did not view themselves as aggressive or forceful. ▸ Access discrimination often was a challenge to providing medical care to male sports teams, and at times a double standard exists in regard to performance and expectations of female athletic trainers. Men and women should
William C. Flint and D. Stanley Eitzen
Three arguments concerning the ownership of professional sports are advanced in this paper. First, sports team owners do not maintain the social and corporate linkages found among capitalists in other industries. Second, these owners participate in the sports industry because it is both profitable and secure (a) through tax incentives and (b) because it is a self-regulating monopoly. Finally, the workings of a self-regulating monopoly and the popularity of sport enhance the reproduction of capitalist social relations and ideology. Sport is seen to represent the mythical ideal of meritocracy where hard work can lead to ownership and participation in America’s games. This ideal ignores the reality that sports team ownership is based on enormous wealth, not merit.
Karen E. Johnson, Martha Y. Kubik, and Barbara J. McMorris
Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students.
In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA.
Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014).
Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.
Bob Heere and Jeffrey D. James
Group identity theory suggests that fans of sports teams see themselves as members of an organization, not just consumers of a product. To foster greater loyalty toward a sports team, managers should concentrate on strengthening fans’ team identity. One way to accomplish this goal is to recognize that a team identity is more than an association with a collection of athletes and coaches or an association with other fans. A team identity can also be symbolic of other types of group identities. Two main types of external group identities are demographic categories and membership organizations. Identifying the external group identities that a sports team is believed to represent and then aligning more closely with key external group identities provides managers with an opportunity to strengthen fans’ team identity and, consequently, their loyalty to a team.
The resource-based view explains sustainable competitive advantage as the consequence of an organization’s endowment of unique and imperfectly replicable resources. Superior organizational performance, however, depends not only on the organization’s resource endowment but also on the efficiency with which the resource endowment is used. In this article a resource-utilization model of a professional sports team is developed in which teams optimize the stock of athletic resources (i.e., playing talent), subject to ownership preferences, over sporting and financial performance. The resource-utilization model is used to analyze the factors influencing the team’s current endowment of athletic resources and evaluate the efficiency with which teams utilize both their athletic and allegiance (i.e., fan base) resources to achieve sporting and financial targets. Empirical evidence is presented on the sporting and financial performance of English professional soccer teams in the FA Premier League over the period 1998-2002. It was found that the financial performance of teams is significantly affected by their ownership status.
Francisco Javier Miranda, Antonio Chamorro, Sergio Rubio, and Oscar Rodriguez
Professional sports teams are increasingly using social networks to better connect their sports and businesses to fans and the general public with the aim of providing team-related information, fostering fandom, and building team reputation. However, few, if any, studies have been done that analyze and evaluate the efficacy of this important portion of the professional sports business model from an informationmanagement perspective. This study employs the Facebook Assessment Index (FAI) to effectively compare, assess, and rank the Facebook sites of top European and North American professional teams. The study also shows how information artifacts in sports can be systematically analyzed, evaluated, and compared. In more general terms, the findings and analysis demonstrate how the information perspective can serve as a novel theoretical lens and important dimension in sport management. The results of the study show large differences between teams in the 3 FAI dimensions and a great improvement opportunity in the use of Facebook as a marketing tool. These results not only serve to create a ranking of sport teams but also can be used by sport managers for social-media-benchmarking analysis.
Cindy Lee, Hyejin Bang, and David J. Shonk
in the belief that business is a part of society ( Breitbarth & Harris, 2008 ), and as such, sports teams were urged to contribute to their local community and society. Hamil and Morrow ( 2011 ) pointed out that professional team sports organizations (PTSOs) provide an ideal setting to examine CSR
Óscar Gutiérrez and José L. Ruiz
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and cross-efficiency evaluation are shown as support tools for sports team management in the context of a study of assessment of the individual game performance of handball players of the Spanish premier league. A sample of 66 players that play as backs in their teams is evaluated from the perspective of their offensive game. DEA yields a measure of the overall performance of the game of the players, and allows to identifying relative strengths and weaknesses by means of a benchmarking analysis. The cross-efficiency evaluation has provided a peer-appraisal of the players with the different patterns of game that the 10 players rated as efficient have used in the DEA assessments, and has made it possible to derive a full ranking of players.