The present study examined personal and social correlates of poor sportspersonship among youth sport participants. Male and female athletes (n = 676) in the fifth through eighth grades from three geographic regions of the U.S. participated in the study. Young athletes involved in basketball, soccer, football, hockey, baseball/ softball, or lacrosse completed a questionnaire that tapped poor sportspersonship behaviors and attitudes, team sportspersonship norms, perceptions of the poor sportspersonship behaviors of coaches and spectators, and the sportspersonship norms of coaches and parents. Preliminary analyses revealed significant gender, grade, sport area, and location differences in self-reported unsportspersonlike behavior. The main analysis revealed that self-reported poor sport behaviors were best predicted by perceived coach and spectator behaviors, followed by team norms, sportspersonship attitudes, and the perceived norms of parents and coaches. Results are discussed in relation to the concept of moral atmosphere.
David Light Shields, Nicole M. LaVoi, Brenda Light Bredemeier and F. Clark Power
John G.H. Dunn and Janice Causgrove Dunn
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between goal orientations, perceptions of athletic aggression, and sportspersonship among elite male youth ice hockey players (M age = 13.08 years). Athletes (N = 171) completed questionnaires to assess their goal orientations, attitudes toward directing aggressive behaviors during competition, and non-aggression-related sportspersonship. In accordance with Vallerand, Deshaies, Cuerrier, Brière, and Pelletier (1996), sportspersonship was conceptualized as a five-dimensional construct. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high ego-oriented athletes were more inclined to approve of aggressive behaviors than those with low ego orientation. Players with higher levels of task orientation (rather than low task orientation) had higher sportspersonship levels on three dimensions. An analysis of goal orientation patterns revealed that regardless of ego orientation, low (compared to high) task orientation was more motivationally detrimental to several sportspersonship dimensions. The practical implications of these results are discussed in the context of Nicholls’s (1989) achievement goal theory.
Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart
engage in the conduct of poor sportspersonship, such as gamesmanship and instrumental aggression ( Yukhymenko-Lescroart, 2015 , 2016 , 2018 ). While instrumental aggression refers to poor character, gamesmanship falls in an ambiguous area with many sports endorsing and encouraging gamesmanship (e
Rafael Burgueño, José Macarro-Moreno, Isabel Sánchez-Gallardo, María-Jesús Lirola and Jesús Medina-Casaubón
: Consistent replication and symmetry . Multivariate Behavioral Research, 35 ( 2 ), 261 – 285 . PubMed ID: 26754085 doi:10.1207/S15327906MBR3502_5 10.1207/S15327906MBR3502_5 Burgueño , R. , Sánchez-Gallardo , I. , & Medina-Casaubón , J. ( 2018 ). Adaptation of the multidimensional sportspersonship
Robert J. Vallerand, Nathalie M. Brière, Céline Blanchard and Pierre Provencher
Martin J. Lee, Jean Whitehead, Nikos Ntoumanis and Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis
This research examines the value-expressive function of attitudes and achievement goal theory in predicting moral attitudes. In Study 1, the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire (YSVQ; Lee, Whitehead, & Balchin, 2000) was modified to measure moral, competence, and status values. In Study 2, structural equation modeling on data from 549 competitors (317 males, 232 females) aged 12–15 years showed that moral and competence values predicted prosocial attitudes, whereas moral (negatively) and status values (positively) predicted antisocial attitudes. Competence and status values predicted task and ego orientation, respectively, and task and ego orientation partially mediated the effect of competence values on prosocial attitudes and of status values on antisocial attitudes, respectively. The role of sport values is discussed, and new research directions are proposed.
Maarten Vansteenkiste, Athanasios Mouratidis and Willy Lens
In two cross-sectional studies we investigated whether soccer players’ well-being (Study 1) and moral functioning (Studies 1 and 2) is related to performance-approach goals and to the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying their pursuit. In support of our hypotheses, we found in Study 1 that autonomous reasons were positively associated with vitality and positive affect, whereas controlling reasons were positively related to negative affect and mostly unrelated to indicators of morality. To investigate the lack of systematic association with moral outcomes, we explored in Study 2 whether performance-approach goals or their underlying reasons would yield an indirect relation to moral outcomes through their association with players’ objectifying attitude—their tendency to depersonalize their opponents. Structural equation modeling showed that controlling reasons for performance-approach goals were positively associated with an objectifying attitude, which in turn was positively associated to unfair functioning. Results are discussed within the achievement goal perspective (Elliot, 2005) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
Eric G. Donahue, Paule Miquelon, Pierre Valois, Claude Goulet, André Buist and Robert J. Vallerand
Very little research has been done so far on the psychological determinants of performance-enhancing substance use in sports. The purpose of this study was to propose and test a motivational model of performance-enhancing substance use with elite athletes (N = 1,201). The model posits that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward sport predict, respectively, positive and negative sportspersonship orientations, which in turn negatively predict the use of performance-enhancing substances. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward sport, sportspersonship orientations, and performance-enhancing substance use in the last 12 months. Findings supported the motivational model. The present findings support the role of intrinsic motivation and sportspersonship orientations in preventing athletes from engaging in unethical behavior such as the use of performance-enhancing substances. Future research should seek to replicate this model with professional and Olympic athletes.
Lambros Lazuras, Vassilis Barkoukis and Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis
The present study assessed adolescent athletes’ intentions toward doping by using an integrative theoretical model. Overall, 650 adolescent athletes from team and individual sports completed an anonymous structured questionnaire including demographic information, social desirability, achievement goals, motivational regulations, sportspersonship orientations, social cognitive variables, and anticipated regret. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the integrative model predicted 57.2% of the variance in doping intentions. Social cognitive variables and anticipated regret directly predicted doping intentions. Anticipated regret added 3% incremental variance on top of other predictors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that the effects of achievement goals on intentions were mediated by self-efficacy beliefs, whereas the effects of sportspersonship were mediated by attitudes and anticipated regret. The present study confirmed the dual structure of an integrative model of doping intentions and further highlighted the role of anticipated regret in the study of adolescent doping use.
.1123/jsep.19.2.169 Research Notes The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: Men, Women, and the Effects of Modifying Item 2 Robert C. Eklund * Betty Kelley * Philip Wilson * 6 1997 19 2 188 196 10.1123/jsep.19.2.188 Research Development and Validation of the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations