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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita, and Tadao Isaka

Superior sprint performance is achieved through the generation of large moments by the muscles crossing the hip, knee, and ankle joints ( 29 ). The magnitudes of these moments are primarily determined by agonist muscle size ( 2 , 11 , 12 , 20 , 32 ). In fact, trunk and lower limb muscles are larger

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Haiko B. Zimmermann, Débora Knihs, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Brian MacIntosh, and Juliano Dal Pupo

results on the performance of drop jumps, 13 vertical jumps, 14 , 15 long jump, 16 supramaximal cycling time-trial, 17 and 1000-m running performance time. 18 However, few studies have tested the effect of these CAs on sprint performance. Till and Cooke 19 found that a single set of 5 vertical jumps

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Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal, Beatriz Bachero-Mena, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, José Antonio Asián-Clemente, Irineu Loturco, and David Rodríguez-Rosell

Resisted sprint training (RST) is a common training method employed to develop sprint performance, in which athletes mimic the traditional sprint movements (ie, unloaded sprints) with an added resistance. 1 Previous studies confirmed that this training strategy is able to induce positive transfer

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Jeffrey D. Simpson, Ludmila Cosio-Lima, Eric M. Scudamore, Eric K. O’Neal, Ethan M. Stewart, Brandon L. Miller, Harish Chander, and Adam C. Knight

Wearing a weighted vest (WV) during daily living activities and training (WVDT), 1 – 3 or during daily living only, 4 – 6 is one form of external loading used to enhance countermovement jump (CMJ) and sprinting performance. The theoretical benefits of WVDT were supported in a seminal

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong, and Michael Chia

additional hour of nocturnal sleep. Brief daytime naps are reported to improve sprint performance outcomes in partially sleep-deprived participants. In a randomized cross-over experiment, Waterhouse et al 15 investigated the effects of a brief afternoon nap following a 4-hour nocturnal sleep curtailment on

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Imen Moussa-Chamari, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Zouheir Sahnoun, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari, and Omar Hammouda

the end of the night had more deleterious effects than PSD caused by a late bedtime on repeated sprint performance during the postlunch dip (PLD). 1 , 3 , 6 Morning performances were unaffected by PSD 1 , 5 , however, exercise performed during or after the PLD would be affected by the PSD. 3 – 6 The

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Michele Merlini, Greg Whyte, Sam Marcora, Mike Loosemore, Neil Chester, and John Dickinson

for the intensity and duration of any additional endurance-based training. Statistical Analysis Changes in sprint performance, strength, power, mood, recovery, sleep, and skinfold thickness from baseline to week 5 between PLA, SAL, and FOR were analyzed using a mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis

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Ryu Nagahara, Mirai Mizutani, Akifumi Matsuo, Hiroaki Kanehisa, and Tetsuo Fukunaga

associated with better maximal-effort sprinting (hereafter, sprinting) performance, 6 , 8 , 9 but findings differ among reports. Weyand et al. 9 have verified that a larger vertical force during a short support duration was the critical factor for higher maximal steady running speed on a treadmill with no

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Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken, and Brendan Egan

An important determinant of success in team sports is repeated sprint performance (RSP; Girard et al., 2011 ). RSP involves maximal or near-maximal short-duration sprints repeated in succession with brief recovery periods. Fatigue manifests as a sprint performance decrement (S dec ; %) over time

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Lara Grobler, Suzanne Ferreira, and Elmarie Terblanche

The Paralympic Games have undergone many changes since their inception in 1960, one being the advances made in running-specific prostheses (RSPs) for track athletes with lower-limb amputations.

Purpose:

To investigate the sprinting-performance changes in athletes with lower-limb amputations since 1992 to assess whether the influence of developments in RSP technology is evident.

Methods:

The results of the Olympic and Paralympic Games ranging between 1992 and 2012 for the 100-m and 200-m were collected, and performance trends, percentage change in performance, and competition density (CD) were calculated.

Results:

The results indicate that the greatest performance increases were seen in athletes with lower-limb amputations (T42 = 26%, T44 = 14%). These performance improvements were greater than for Olympic athletes (<3%), as well as Paralympic athletes from other selected classes (<10%). The T42 and T44 classes also showed the lowest CD values.

Discussion:

These results suggest that although there is an overall trend for improved Paralympic sprint performances, RSP technology has played a noteworthy role in the progression of performances of athletes with amputations. It is also hypothesized that the difference in the performance improvements between the T42 and T44 classes is due to the level of disability and therefore the extent to which technology is required to enable locomotion.

Conclusion:

It is evident that RSP technology has played a significant role in the progression of performances in athletes with lower-limb amputations.