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Nobuaki Tottori, Tadashi Suga, Yuto Miyake, Ryo Tsuchikane, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, Satoshi Fujita and Tadao Isaka

Superior sprint performance is achieved through the generation of large moments by the muscles crossing the hip, knee, and ankle joints ( 29 ). The magnitudes of these moments are primarily determined by agonist muscle size ( 2 , 11 , 12 , 20 , 32 ). In fact, trunk and lower limb muscles are larger

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Jeffrey D. Simpson, Ludmila Cosio-Lima, Eric M. Scudamore, Eric K. O’Neal, Ethan M. Stewart, Brandon L. Miller, Harish Chander and Adam C. Knight

Wearing a weighted vest (WV) during daily living activities and training (WVDT), 1 – 3 or during daily living only, 4 – 6 is one form of external loading used to enhance countermovement jump (CMJ) and sprinting performance. The theoretical benefits of WVDT were supported in a seminal

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

additional hour of nocturnal sleep. Brief daytime naps are reported to improve sprint performance outcomes in partially sleep-deprived participants. In a randomized cross-over experiment, Waterhouse et al 15 investigated the effects of a brief afternoon nap following a 4-hour nocturnal sleep curtailment on

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Michele Merlini, Greg Whyte, Sam Marcora, Mike Loosemore, Neil Chester and John Dickinson

for the intensity and duration of any additional endurance-based training. Statistical Analysis Changes in sprint performance, strength, power, mood, recovery, sleep, and skinfold thickness from baseline to week 5 between PLA, SAL, and FOR were analyzed using a mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis

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Ryu Nagahara, Mirai Mizutani, Akifumi Matsuo, Hiroaki Kanehisa and Tetsuo Fukunaga

associated with better maximal-effort sprinting (hereafter, sprinting) performance, 6 , 8 , 9 but findings differ among reports. Weyand et al. 9 have verified that a larger vertical force during a short support duration was the critical factor for higher maximal steady running speed on a treadmill with no

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Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken and Brendan Egan

An important determinant of success in team sports is repeated sprint performance (RSP; Girard et al., 2011 ). RSP involves maximal or near-maximal short-duration sprints repeated in succession with brief recovery periods. Fatigue manifests as a sprint performance decrement (S dec ; %) over time

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Lara Grobler, Suzanne Ferreira and Elmarie Terblanche

The Paralympic Games have undergone many changes since their inception in 1960, one being the advances made in running-specific prostheses (RSPs) for track athletes with lower-limb amputations.

Purpose:

To investigate the sprinting-performance changes in athletes with lower-limb amputations since 1992 to assess whether the influence of developments in RSP technology is evident.

Methods:

The results of the Olympic and Paralympic Games ranging between 1992 and 2012 for the 100-m and 200-m were collected, and performance trends, percentage change in performance, and competition density (CD) were calculated.

Results:

The results indicate that the greatest performance increases were seen in athletes with lower-limb amputations (T42 = 26%, T44 = 14%). These performance improvements were greater than for Olympic athletes (<3%), as well as Paralympic athletes from other selected classes (<10%). The T42 and T44 classes also showed the lowest CD values.

Discussion:

These results suggest that although there is an overall trend for improved Paralympic sprint performances, RSP technology has played a noteworthy role in the progression of performances of athletes with amputations. It is also hypothesized that the difference in the performance improvements between the T42 and T44 classes is due to the level of disability and therefore the extent to which technology is required to enable locomotion.

Conclusion:

It is evident that RSP technology has played a significant role in the progression of performances in athletes with lower-limb amputations.

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

et al., 2015 ), the effect of nitrate supplementation has not been investigated in elite team sport athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent-type sprint performance in elite female water polo players

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, João Ribeiro, Francisco Alves, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ludovic Seifert and Ricardo J. Fernandes

those studies assessed coordinating variables, all of them using the index of coordination (IdC), the most widely used method in swimming. The current study aimed to conduct a multivariate analysis of young swimmers’ sprint performance to determine which are the key variables when analyzing the effect

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Blair Mills, Brad Mayo, Francisco Tavares and Matthew Driller

concluded that a limitation was the flossing of only one ankle and that only one time point was assessed (5 min post). In a follow-up study, Driller et al 2 investigated the time course benefits on bilateral ankle ROM; WBLT; countermovement jump (CMJ); and sprinting performance at 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes