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Michelle Boling, Darin Padua, J. Troy Blackburn, Meredith Petschauer and Christopher Hirth


Clinicians commonly attempt to facilitate vastus medialis oblique (VMO) activity by instructing patients to squeeze a ball between their knees during squatting exercises.


To determine whether VMO activation amplitude and the VMO to vastus lateralis (VL) activation ratio (VMO:VL) were altered when performing active hip adduction during a dynamic squat exercise.


Single test session.


Fifteen healthy subjects, with no history of knee pain, volunteered for this study.


Surface EMG of the VMO, VL, and hip adductor (ADD) muscles were recorded while subjects performed 10 consecutive squats against their body weight through a range of 0° to 90° of knee flexion. Subjects performed the squat exercises during two different conditions: (1) active hip adduction and (2) no hip adduction.

Main Outcome Measures:

Average VMO EMG amplitude and VMO:VL ratio were determined during the knee flexion (0° to 90°) and knee extension (90° to 0°) phases of the squat exercise.


Active hip adduction did not significantly change VMO amplitude or VMO:VL ratio during the knee flexion or knee extension phases of the dynamic squat exercise.


Based on these results, we conclude that VMO amplitude and the VMO: VL ratio are not influenced by performing active hip adduction during a dynamic squat exercise in healthy subjects.

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

, which may affect muscle activation patterns. Methods Design This study was a repeated-measures design. The dependent variables in this study were the percentage of maximum EMG measures for each of 4 lifts: (1) bilateral squat (BS), (2) modified single-leg squat (MSLS), (3) leg curl (LC), and (4) stiff

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Anna C. Severin, Brendan J. Burkett, Mark R. McKean, Aaron N. Wiegand and Mark G.L. Sayers

prescribing exercises that mimic activities of daily living (ADL) to maintain functional independence in older adults ( Moreira et al., 2016 ; Resende, Rassi, & Viana, 2008 ; Skelton & Dinan, 2009 ). It is common for practitioners to incorporate both squats and split squats into these training programs

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Guilherme S. Nunes, Débora Faria Wolf, Daniel Augusto dos Santos, Marcos de Noronha and Fábio Viadanna Serrão

characterized by diffuse pain in the anterior region of the knee and is more evident in activities that overload the patellofemoral joint (PFJ), such as squatting, climbing, and descending stairs. 3 Poor control of dynamic knee valgus during weight-bearing activities may be a trigger factor for PFP. 4 , 5

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Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Rivière, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin and Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

without any gain in maximal strength. 5 , 9 , 12 With gravity, it is quite easy to increase the load for maximal strength training. However, decreasing the load to increase movement velocity during ballistic training is more complicated, notably when body weight is involved such as during squats or squat

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Lachlan E. Garrick, Bryce C. Alexander, Anthony G. Schache, Marcus G. Pandy, Kay M. Crossley and Natalie J. Collins

, particularly dynamic knee valgus, is an important target to prevent and manage running-related pain and injury. The single-leg squat is a functional movement test commonly used by sports medicine practitioners to evaluate single-leg dynamic control of the trunk, pelvis, and lower limb. Lower limb movement

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Thomas G. Almonroeder, Emily Watkins and Tricia Widenhoefer

to the joint contact area, appear to be contributing factors. 6 – 9 Weight-bearing lower-extremity strengthening exercises, such as the bodyweight squat, are recommended for managing patellofemoral pain. 10 A potential benefit of weight-bearing exercises is that they may be more “functional” than

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Hong-Wen Wu, Cheng-Feng Tsai, Kai-Han Liang and Yi-Wen Chang

Squat and lunge are closed kinetic chain exercises in which multijoint coordination and stance balance are essential. They are often applied in muscle strengthening or rehabilitation therapy, such as patellofemoral pain syndrome 1 and anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. 2 , 3 Escamilla et al 2

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Scott W. Cheatham, Kyle R. Stull, Mike Fantigrassi and Ian Montel

The squat is a foundational exercise utilized in resistance training programs. Often, the squat is used to develop strength and power in the lower-extremity, and is a fundamental exercise in an athlete’s training program. Allied health and fitness professionals often prescribe different versions of

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Benita Olivier, Samantha-Lynn Quinn, Natalie Benjamin, Andrew Craig Green, Jessica Chiu and Weijie Wang

The single-leg squat task is used as a rehabilitative exercise 1 , 2 or as a screening tool 3 , 4 for the functional movement of the lower limb. The presence of pathology influences the way in which the single-leg squat is performed. On performing the single-leg squat, individuals with