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Anand Navalgund, John A. Buford, Mathew S. Briggs and Deborah L. Givens

Altered trunk muscle reflexes have been observed in patients with low back pain (LBP). Altered reflexes may contribute to impaired postural control, and possibly recurrence of LBP. Specific stabilization exercise (SSE) programs have been shown to decrease the risk of LBP recurrence in a select group of patients with acute, first episode LBP. It is not known if trunk muscle reflex responses improve with resolution of subacute, recurrent LBP when treated with a SSE program. A perturbation test was used to compare trunk muscle reflexes in patients with subacute, recurrent LBP, before and after 10 weeks of a SSE program and a group of matched control subjects (CNTL). The LBP group pre therapy had delayed trunk muscle reflexes compared with the CNTL group. Post therapy reflex latencies remained delayed, but amplitudes increased. Increased reflex amplitudes could limit excessive movement of the spine when perturbed; potentially helping prevent recurrence.

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Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang and Sang Chul Lee

damaged sensory receptors and changed muscular adjustment patterns, trigger instability in postural balance and limited trunk movement adjustment. 6 The traditional stabilizing exercise interventions are successful at treating LBP; however, there is often recurrence of LBP that has been illustrated in

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Fatemeh Ehsani, Rozita Hedayati, Rasool Bagheri and Shapour Jaberzadeh

contraction during AH during walking and standing on the tilt board Walking and standing on the tilt board Abbreviations: AH, abdominal hollowing; GE, general exercise; MF, multifidus; SE, stabilization exercise; SLR, straight leg raising; TrA, transverse abdominis. Therapeutic Interventions Each intervention

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Jim F. Schilling

Edited by Patrick Sexton

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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim and BumChul Yoon

improving functional disability in people with LBP. 20 Time required to perform each movement was about 10 seconds. Figure 2 —(A) Stabilization exercise with suspension. (B) Performing stabilization exercise with suspension. Outcomes Measures Outcomes were assessed at 4 time points: baseline, 4-week

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Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle and Erika Nelson-Wong

. Preliminary development of a clinical prediction rule for determining which patients with low back pain will respond to a stabilization exercise program . Arch Phys Med Rehabil . 2005 ; 86 ( 9 ): 1753 – 1762 . PubMed ID: 16181938 doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.033 16181938 10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.033 18

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Maria Moussouli, Symeon P. Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos D. Kofotolis, Yannis Theodorakis, Paraskevi Malliou and Eleftherios Kellis


The study examined the effects of a 4-week intensive isometric and isotonic stabilization exercise program on dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in women with chronic low back pain (CLBP).


A total of 39 women (27–72 years old) provided data in an experimental study with a 9-month follow-up. Random allocation was undertaken for the two treatment groups out of the 3 groups: isometric stabilization (n = 13), isotonic stabilization (n = 13), and a control group (n = 13) that did not participate in any form of exercise. Health-related quality of life measures using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey were assessed before program initiation, immediately after program termination, and 4 times postintervention for a period of 9 months.


The isometric stabilization group displayed large improvements in bodily pain and vitality for women with CLBP attending a 4-week intensive isometric stabilization exercise program. The effects were retained for a period of 9 months after program termination.


Isometric stabilization exercises reduce pain and enhance vitality as dimensions of HRQL among women with chronic low back pain with such effects lasting for at least 9 months.

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Sung-min Ha, Oh-yun Kwon, Su-jung Kim and Sung-dae Choung


A normal breathing pattern while performing the abdominal-hollowing (AH) maneuver or spinal-stabilization exercise is essential for the success of rehabilitation programs and exercises. In previous studies, subjects were given standardized instructions to control the influence of respiration during the AH maneuver. However, the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness during the AH maneuver has not been investigated.


To compare abdominal-muscle thickness in subjects performing the AH maneuver under normal and abnormal breathing-pattern conditions and to investigate the effect of breathing pattern on the preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of the transverse abdominis.


Comparative, repeated-measures experimental study.


University research laboratory.


16 healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) from a university population.


A real-time ultrasound scanner was used to measure abdominal-muscle thickness during normal and abnormal breathing patterns. A paired t test was used to assess the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness and PCR.


Muscle thickness in the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles was significantly greater under the normal breathing pattern than under the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The PCR of the transverse abdominis was significantly higher under the normal breathing pattern compared with the abnormal pattern (P < .05).


The results indicate that a normal breathing pattern is essential for performance of an effective AH maneuver. Thus, clinicians should ensure that patients adopt a normal breathing pattern before performing the AH maneuver and monitor transverse abdominis activation during the maneuver.

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

being conducted for the treatment of NNP, little is known about the potential benefits of scapular stabilization exercise on neck pain. 19 Studies investigating the role of the scapula on neck pain mostly focus on the acute effects of active or passive scapular correction neck pain. 6 , 7 , 16 However

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Hiroshi Takasaki, Yu Okubo and Shun Okuyama

• RC (lower-extremity flexion–adduction–external rotation with knee flexion, sprinter, lifting) a • 10-s exercise and 10-s rest • 3 sets × 4 times/wk for 6 wk Control • Stabilization exercise (supine, bridge, quadruped, standing position) • 10-s exercise and 10-s rest • 3 sets × 4 times/wk for 6 wk