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Jay Hertel, Craig R. Denegar, W.E. Buckley, Neil A. Sharkey and Wayne L. Stokes

Objective:

To identify changes in sagittal- and frontal-plane center of pressure (COP) excursion length and velocity during single-leg stance under 6 orthotic conditions.

Design:

1 × 6 repeated-measures.

Setting:

University biomechanics laboratory.

Participants:

Fifteen healthy young adults without excessive forefoot, arch, or rear-foot malalignments.

Measurements:

Selected variables of COP length and velocity were calculated in both the frontal and sagittal planes during three 5-second trials of quiet unilateral stance.

Methods:

Postural control was assessed under 6 conditions: shoe only and 5 orthotics.

Results:

The medially posted orthotic caused the least frontal COP length and velocity, and the Cramer Sprained Ankle Orthotic® caused the greatest frontal-plane sway. No significant differences were found between the different orthotic conditions in sagittal-plane measures.

Conclusions:

Differently posted rear-foot orthotics had various effects on frontal-plane postural control in healthy participants. Further research is needed on pathological populations.

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Jay Hertel, Lauren C. Olmsted-Kramer and John H. Challis

A novel approach to quantifying postural stability in single leg stance is assessment of time-to-boundary (TTB) of center of pressure (COP) excursions. TTB measures estimate the time required for the COP to reach the boundary of the base of support if it were to continue on its instantaneous trajectory and velocity, thus quantifying the spatiotemporal characteristics of postural control. Our purposes were to examine: (a) the intrasession reliability of TTB and traditional COP-based measures of postural control, and (b) the correlations between these measures. Twenty-four young women completed three 10-second trials of single-limb quiet standing on each limb. Traditional measures included mean velocity, standard deviation, and range of mediolateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) COP excursions. TTB variables were the absolute minimum, mean of minimum samples, and standard deviation of minimum samples in the ML and AP directions. The intrasession reliability of TTB measures was comparable to traditional COP based measures. Correlations between TTB and traditional COP based measures were weaker than those within each category of measures, indicating that TTB measures capture different aspects of postural control than traditional measures. TTB measures provide a unique method of assessing spatiotemporal characteristics of postural control during single limb stance.

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Kelly M. Meiners and Janice K. Loudon

Purpose/Background: Various methods are available for assessment of static and dynamic postural stability. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic postural stability as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and static postural sway assessment as measured by the TechnoBody Pro-Kin in female soccer players. A secondary purpose was to determine side-to-side symmetry in this cohort. Methods: A total of 18 female soccer players completed testing on the SEBT and Technobody Pro-Kin balance device. Outcome measures were anterior, posterior medial, and posterior lateral reaches from the SEBT and center of pressure in the x- and y-axes as well as SD of movement in the forward/backward and medial/lateral directions from the force plate on left and right legs. Bivariate correlations were determined between the 8 measures. In addition, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to determine similarity between limb scores. Results: All measures on both the SEBT and postural sway assessment were significantly correlated when comparing dominant with nondominant lower-extremities with the exception of SD of movement in both x- and y-axes. When correlating results of the SEBT with postural sway assessment, a significant correlation was found between the SEBT right lower-extremity posterior lateral reach (r = .567, P < .05) and summed SEBT (r = .486, P < .05) and the center of pressure in the y-axis. A significant correlation was also found on the left lower-extremity, with SD of forward/backward movement and SEBT posterior medial reach (r = −.511, P < .05). Conclusions: Dynamic postural tests and static postural tests provide different information to the overall assessment of balance in female soccer players. Relationship between variables differed based on the subject’s lower-extremity dominance.

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Athanasios Trampas, Anastasia Mpeneka, Vivian Malliou, George Godolias and Periklis Vlachakis

Context:

Previous studies showed improved dynamic-balance (DB) performance after core-stability (CS) exercises in populations with chronic low back pain. Although clinical massage plus exercise is likely to better enhance analgesia than exercise alone, its efficacy on balance remains unclear.

Objective:

To evaluate the immediate effects of CS exercises plus myofascial trigger-point (MTrP) therapy in comparison with CS exercises alone on DB performance, pressure-pain threshold (PPT), and cross-sectional area of active MTrPs in patients with clinical instability of the lumbar spine and chronic myofascial pain syndrome.

Design:

Randomized, assessor-blind, test–retest.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Patients:

10 physically active adults (5 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Single-leg DB performance and side-to-side ratios in 2 planes of motion (frontal, sagittal), as well as PPT and cross-sectional area of active MTrPs, were measured using stabilometry, pressure algometry, and real-time ultrasound scanning, respectively.

Interventions:

The 1st group performed CS exercises alone, whereas the same exercise program was applied in the 2nd group plus cross-fiber friction on active MTrPs (3.5 min/MTrP).

Results:

Within-group statistically and clinically significant differences were observed only for group II in PPT. However, group I also exhibited a large effect size with clinically significant changes from baseline on this outcome. Furthermore, patients in group II clinically improved their balance ratios and differed from group I at posttest in sagittal-plane DB performance of the painful side.

Conclusion:

CS exercises immediately increase the PPT of active MTrPs in physically active adults with clinical instability of the lumbar spine and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. When MTrP therapy is added, side-to-side asymmetries in DB are minimized.

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Christopher K. Rhea, Jed A. Diekfuss, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother and Louisa D. Raisbeck

-pass Butterworth filter using a 5-Hz cutoff, congruent with previous research ( Kuznetsov, Bonnette, Gao, & Riley, 2013 ; Rhea, Kiefer, Wright, Raisbeck, & Haran, 2015 ; Ruhe, Fejer, & Walker, 2010 ) and clinical stabilometry guidelines ( Scoppa, Capra, Gallamini, & Shiffer, 2013 ). This paper focuses only on

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David Rhodes, Mark Leather, Daniel Birdsall and Jill Alexander

stability. 24 Proprioceptive deficits resulting from lower limb injury in football requires proprioceptive training over periods of weeks, through balance and coordination exercises, in order to restore stabilometry. 14 , 15 Due to the multidirectional nature of football, it is important to consider the

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Peter Leinen, Thomas Muehlbauer and Stefan Panzer

: 21395364 10.2165/11538560-000000000-00000 Kapteyn , T.S. , Bles , W. , Njiokikten , C. , Kodde , L. , Massen , C.H. , & Mol , J.M.F. ( 1983 ). Standardization in platform stabilometry being a part of posturography

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Wael Maktouf, Sylvain Durand, Bruno Beaune and Sébastien Boyas

). Premises met standards for stabilometry testing considering dimensions, brightness, and environmental noise. 31 Tests were performed similarly and at the same time of the day before and after the PA program. The NWG performed only initial and final testing, while the OWG and OG performed initial and final

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Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L. Werner and Kendall M. Iverson

stabilometry . Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol . 2009 ; 147 ( 1 ): 25 – 28 . PubMed ID: 19640628 doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.06.027 19640628 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.06.027 27. McCrory JL , Chambers AJ , Daftary A , Redfern MS . Dynamic postural stability in pregnant fallers and non-fallers . BJOG

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Hananeh Younesian, Nader Farahpour, Mehrdokht Mazde, Martin Simoneau and Katia Turcot

.05.014 31. Kapteyn TS , Beles W , Njiokiktjien ÇJ , et al . Standardization in platform stabilometry being a part of posturography . Agressologie . 1983 ; 24 ( 7 ): 321 – 326 . PubMed ID: 6638321 6638321 32. Boucher P , Teasdale N , Courtemanche R , et al . Postural stability in