which universities operate ( Baade, Baumann, & Matheson, 2008 ; Goff, 2000 ; Humphreys & Mondello, 2007 ), and a body of research exists related to attendance at football games (e.g., Fizel & Bennett, 1989 ; Price & Sen, 2003 ). As Solomon ( 2016 ) reported, fans’ stadium attendance at football
Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Kyle Kashuck, Joshua Law and Alexandra Speck
Glynn M. McGehee, Armin A. Marquez, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison
Professional sport organizations and their stadiums often draw the attention of policy makers, developers, and ordinary citizens because of their reliance on public financing and their potential impact on surrounding neighborhoods and urban spaces. For example, from 2005 to 2016, 41 professional
Nadège Levallet, Norm O’Reilly, Elizabeth Wanless, Michael Naraine, Ethan Alkon and Wade Longmire
further investigation, she learned that 75% of professional sport venues apparently offered that amenity, helping those franchises create “connected stadiums” to combat fan apathy and tailor the fan experience. Mary, not a very technical individual herself, wondered as she looked out the window of her
Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison
’s announcement of a new stadium served as the focus of analysis in relation to the corresponding newspaper articles and public opinions via social media content and comments on articles. A major stadium announcement provided an opportunity to demonstrate how a sport organization’s public relations (PR) strategy
Lana L. Huberty, Timothy B. Kellison and Mike Mondello
As state- and local-government subsidies to professional sport organizations have increased over the past 3 decades, economic arguments have been crafted to justify these subsidies, such as Crompton’s claims of increased community visibility, enhanced community image, stimulation of other development, and psychic income. The purpose of this study was to examine the public relations strategy of a professional sport organization campaigning to secure public funding for a new stadium. Specifically, the authors focused on the use of press releases by the Minnesota Vikings, a National Football League team, over the 3 seasons preceding the completion of their successful sport-stadium campaign. This study was timely in that these press releases were from 2010, 2011, and 2012 and the new Vikings stadium grand opening is set for 2016. Through a qualitative analysis, the authors identified the arguments made by the team to garner support for the stadium plan during the Vikings’ campaign. In all, 71 press releases were collected, examined, and coded by investigators. Findings are discussed to provide insight into these 4 alternative justification arguments.
Stephen Reysen, Jamie S. Snider and Nyla R. Branscombe
We examined the effect of corporate renaming of a stadium on fans’ felt anger and perceived harm to the team’s distinctiveness by asking participants to imagine that their historic local sport venue was renamed (or not) after a large corporation or a wealthy individual. Participants reported more perceived harm to the team’s distinctiveness when a corporation (vs. individual) donated money to the team. Furthermore, participants who thought that the venue name had been changed (compared with no name change) expressed more anger and perceived the name change to be a threat to the team’s distinctiveness. A mediated moderation analysis showed that, compared with when the stadium name remained the same, highly identified fans believed the name change would harm the distinctiveness of the team, which resulted in greater felt anger. In line with social identity theory, the results show that anger is an emotional outcome of recently experienced distinctiveness threat.
Kirk L. Wakefield and Hugh J. Sloan
Having loyal fans and a winning team generally results in higher attendance at games. However, university and professional team administrators are beginning to recognize the importance of marketing the stadium experience as more than just the game. Drawing from data collected from spectators at five Southeastern Conference football stadiums, the effects of team loyalty, stadium parking, stadium cleanliness, perceived crowding, food service, and fan behavior control on spectators' desire to stay and attend games at the stadium were investigated. Covariance structural modeling (e.g., LISREL) was employed to test the causal relationships among the hypothesized relationships. The results support the premise that although team loyalty strongly affects attendance, stadium design and stadium services also directly influence spectators' desire to stay, and hence, attend games at the stadium.
Michael J. Mondello, Richard W. Schwester and Brad R. Humphreys
Major League Baseball’s Tampa Bay Rays have proposed constructing a facility on the St. Petersburg waterfront. The projected cost of this stadium is $450 million, which will be financed partially by the Rays’ ownership. The remaining cost will be financed through tax revenues generated from the private redevelopment of Tropicana Field—the Rays’ current facility. Using content analysis, this article examines the public discourse regarding the proposed stadium. A pillar of controversy surrounding the stadium plan centers on opportunity-cost issues. Furthermore, in the context of the public-good argument, there is empirical evidence among bloggers that the stadium would stimulate awareness, improve the city’s image, or simply give the city a platform to showcase its amenities. This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the prevailing themes characterizing support for or opposition to this stadium plan and generate testable research hypotheses.
Sebastian Uhrich and Martin Benkenstein
This article reports the findings of an investigation into the atmosphere in stadiums during live team sports. Experiencing this special atmosphere represents an essential part of the total service provided by the organizers of sport events. However, existing research into the concept of atmosphere focuses on the retail environment. Our first step was therefore to define sport stadium atmosphere as a theoretical construct, drawing on theories from environmental psychology. We then developed a mimic (multiple indicator-multiple cause) model to measure the construct. To specify the mimic model, we generated and selected formative measures by means of a delphi study (N = 20), qualitative expert interviews (N = 44), and an indicator sort task (N = 34). The results indicate that various physical and social aspects of the stadium environment are causal indicators of sport stadium atmosphere. Following this, we conducted phenomenological interviews with spectators at sport events (N = 5) to identify typical affective responses to stadium environment (representing the reflective indicators of the mimic model). These interviews revealed that fans’ experience of stadium environment is characterized by high levels of arousal and pleasure. In addition to our findings, the mimic model developed in this study represents a useful tool for future research into sport stadium atmosphere.
David K. Stotlar and David A. Johnson
This study investigated the effectiveness of stadium advertising on sports spectators in selected NCAA Division I football and basketball programs, utilizing intermediate measures and recognition testing techniques. Research questions included whether sport spectators would recognize the presence of stadium advertising and could identify all of it. The factors of age, income level, seat location, number of games attended, and location of stadium advertising were analyzed as to their effects on spectator recognition. Based on the findings of this research, sport facilities have been shown to be an ideal medium for products that appeal to sport spectators. A majority of spectators noticed advertising, and approximately 7 out of 10 correctly identified it. Advertising locations that were “part of the game” were shown to be more effective than those on the scoreboards. Results of this study demonstrated that stadium advertising effectiveness can be assessed and that it provides the sponsors with an effective means for reaching sport spectators.