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Matt R. Huml, Marion E. Hambrick, Mary A. Hums and Calvin Nite

, instead of managers, is needed because stakeholders often adjust their stance on issues to influence their managers ( Frooman, 1999 ). Previous studies on stakeholder theory have also recommended further examination of additional attributes within stakeholder salience ( Jones, Felps, & Bigley, 2007

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Lauren Burch, Chrysostomos Giannoulakis and Shea Brgoch

This case study examines USA Wrestling’s (USAW) social media use during the 2014 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Wrestling Championships. During the three days of the event, a cross-platform content analysis of USAW’s Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram accounts formed the foundation of the case analysis. In addition, real-life qualitative interviews were conducted with employees involved with the national governing body’s (NGB) social media implementation plan. Students will be asked to develop social media-based messaging to reach and engage the NGB’s potential stakeholders, based on USAW’s communication strategy outcomes during the NCAA championships. The case provides students with the opportunity to: (a) analyze nonprofit sport organizations, (b) investigate how communication and marketing efforts differ in a not-for-profit environment, and (c) identify to what extent social media sites provide a cost-effective option to entities of similar status. To further support the pivotal role of social media within a sport organization’s overall marketing and communication mix, managerial implications pertaining to stakeholder identification and engagement strategies are included in the analysis.

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Glynn M. McGehee, Armin A. Marquez, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

advancing and developing business ( Freeman, Harrison, Wicks, Parma, & De Colle, 2010 ). Beyond identifying stakeholders, organizations must determine how to communicate with stakeholder groups. Stakeholder theory is an operational theory, aiding organizations to develop and evaluate their strategies for

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Lesley Ferkins and David Shilbury

This study is positioned within the nonprofit sport context and builds on an emerging body of work in sport governance to investigate how nonprofit sport organizations can develop their governing capability. A rich data set derived from a 2-year action research study in an Australian state sport organization revealed a lack of stakeholder engagement underpinned by confusion about stakeholder-governing responsibility as the central issues in developing governance capability. The lessons drawn from the Squash Vic experience integrated with sport governance literature and stakeholder theory show the need to embed the notion of stakeholder salience or primacy to explain and clarify the dilemma of multiple stakeholders and the lack of stakeholder engagement in the governing process. We introduce Fassin’s (2012) notion of “stakeowner” and associated ideas of reciprocity and responsibility as a helpful characterization of the legal members in the stakeholdergovernance relationship.

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Milena M. Parent

The purpose of this article is to develop a framework of how organizing committees operationally evolve and the types of issues with which they and their stakeholders must deal. Based on a combination of stakeholder theory and issues management, a case study of the 1999 Pan American Games held in Winnipeg, Canada, was built using archival material and interviews. Three major organizing-committee operational modes emerged: planning, implementation, and wrap-up. Issue categories faced by the organizing committee and its stakeholders included politics, visibility, financial, organizing, relationships, operations, sport, infrastructure, human resources, media, interdependence, participation, and legacy. Issue-category prominence depended on the operational mode and organizing-committee member hierarchical level, such that issues became less strategic and broad as one moved through operational modes or down the hierarchy. Issue categories also differed within stakeholder groups, whereas stakeholder interests (material, political, affiliative, informational, and symbolic) differed between stakeholder groups.

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Yuhei Inoue, Aubrey Kent and Seoki Lee

Despite the acknowledged importance of investigating the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) within a single industry, very few studies have examined this relationship in the context of the sport industry. Using charitable giving data as a proxy of CSR, this study investigated if CSR would affect CFP of professional sport teams within the four major U.S. leagues. Although the positive CSR-CFP relationship was hypothesized based on instrumental stakeholder theory, CSR was found to have non-positive effects on CFP. These results are still notable since they may highlight the importance of the connectedness between CSR and team operations and the awareness of CSR activity among stakeholders in leveraging CSR benefits. Overall, through the use of improved methodology, the current study furthers the understanding of the CSR-CFP relationship among the U.S. professional teams.

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd and Brian Mihalik

; Babiak & Thibault, 2009 ; Babiak & Willem, 2016 ; Hayhurst & Frisby, 2010 ; Jones, Edwards, Bocarro, Bunds, & Smith, 2017 ; Shaw & Allen, 2006 ). Stakeholder theory, which focuses on the different entities within partnerships ( Freeman, 1984 ), has been used to study mega events for decades ( Gursoy

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Kathy Babiak, Lucie Thibault and Annick Willem

.2%), stakeholder theory ( n  = 22, 13.6%), institutional theory ( n  = 10, 6.2%), and relationship marketing ( n  = 6, 3.7%). It is important to note that the authors of several sport IOR articles used more than one theoretical framework to guide their study; thus, in Table  5 , we highlight representative

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Jamee A. Pelcher and Brian P. McCullough

stakeholder theory, or stakeholder management, is to understand why the concerns and opinions of stakeholder groups should be considered when making strategic decisions that affect the organization. Thus, managers need to identify powerful (i.e., influential) stakeholders that can affect the value of an

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Stefan Walzel, Jonathan Robertson and Christos Anagnostopoulos

conceptual models (predominantly Carroll’s [ 1979 ] three-dimensional model of corporate social performance) to position themselves. As Table  4 shows, stakeholder theory ( n  = 9) is by far the most used theoretical approach in the examined dataset. Institutional theory was used in five studies, as it has