Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 196 items for :

  • "standard error of measurement" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Assessing Reliability and Precision of Measurement: An Introduction to Intraclass Correlation and Standard Error of Measurement

Craig R. Denegar and Donald W. Ball

The reliability and precision of measurement in sports medicine are of concern in both research and clinical practice. The validity of conclusions drawn from a research project and the rationale for decisions made about the care of an injured athlete are directly related to the precision of measurement. Through analysis of variance, estimates of reliability and precision of measurement can be quantified. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the concepts of intraclass correlation as an estimate of reliability and standard error of measurement as an estimate of precision. The need for a standardized set of formulas for intraclass correlation is demonstrated, and it is urged that the standard error of measurement be included when estimates of reliability are reported. In addition, three examples are provided to illustrate important concepts and familiarize the reader with the process of calculating these estimates of reliability and precision of measurement.

Restricted access

Reliability of the Active-Knee-Extension and Straight-Leg-Raise Tests in Subjects With Flexibility Deficits

Tiago Neto, Lia Jacobsohn, Ana I. Carita, and Raul Oliveira

Context: The active-knee-extension test (AKE) and the straight-leg-raise test (SLR) are widely used for flexibility assessment. A number of investigations have tested the reliability of these measures, especially the AKE. However, in most studies, the sample involved subjects with normal flexibility. In addition, few studies have determined the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable difference (MDD), which can provide complementary and more clinically relevant information than the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) alone. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the AKE and LSR intrarater (test-retest) reliability in subjects with flexibility deficits, as well as the correlation between the 2 tests. Design: Reliability study. Setting: Academic laboratory. Subjects: 102 recreationally active participants (48 male, 54 female) with no injury to the lower limbs and with flexibility deficits in the hamstrings muscle group. Main Outcomes: Intrarater reliability was determined using the ICC, complemented by the SEM and MDD. Measures: All participants performed, in each lower limb, 2 trials of the AKE and the SLR. Results: The ICC values found for AKE and SLR tests were, respectively, .87-.94 and .93-.97. The values for SEM were low for both tests (2.6-2.9° for AKE, 2.2-2.6° for SLR), as well as the calculated MDD (7-8° for AKE, 6-7° for SLR). A moderate to strong, and significant, correlation between AKE and SLR was determined for the dominant limb (r = .71) and the nondominant limb (r = .67). Conclusions: These findings suggest that both AKE and SLR have excellent intrarater reliability. The SEMs and MDDs recorded are also very encouraging for the use of these tests in subjects with flexibility deficits.

Restricted access

Reproducibility of the Rotor 2INpower Crankset for Monitoring Cycling Power Output: A Comprehensive Analysis in Different Real-Context Situations

Víctor Rodríguez-Rielves, Alejandro Martínez-Cava, Ángel Buendía-Romero, José Ramón Lillo-Beviá, Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Alejandro Hernández-Belmonte, and Jesús G. Pallarés

between 2 and 3 weeks before the beginning of the experimental procedures following the methodology proposed by Storer et al. 12 Statistical Analysis The magnitude of errors for the intradevice and interdevice analyses included the standard error of measurement (SEM) calculated from the square root of the

Restricted access

Reliability and Validity of the Clinometer Smartphone Application for Measuring Knee Flexion

Emilie N. Miley, Ashley J. Reeves, Russell T. Baker, Jayme Baker, and Samantha Hanna

previous research 7 and were categorized based on the following definitions: ≤.49 as poor, .50–.74 as moderate, .75–.90 as good, and >.90 as excellent. 15 The standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were calculated using the following equations: SEM = S D × 1 − ICC ; MDC

Restricted access

The Isometric Horizontal Push Test: Test–Retest Reliability and Validation Study

Antonio Dello Iacono, Stephanie Valentin, Mark Sanderson, and Israel Halperin

–Altman bias estimates. Finally, sensitivity of the PF outputs obtained from the strain gauge and force plate was assessed by comparing the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) and standard error of measurement (SEM), and interpreted using the thresholds proposed by Liow and Hopkins. 15 Statistical significance

Restricted access

Errors in Measuring Glenohumeral Arthrokinematics With 2-Dimensional Fluoroscopy

Meena Makhija, Jasobanta Sethi, Chitra Kataria, Harpreet Singh, Paula M. Ludewig, and Vandana Phadke

of measurement as the root mean square error. Interrater and intrarater reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient model (2, 1) and (3, 1), respectively, and standard error of measurement 28 for the humeral head position. Results There were differences in measurements

Open access

Reliability of a Smartphone Goniometric Application in the Measurement of Hip Range of Motion Among Experienced and Novice Clinicians

Enda Whyte, Tiarnán Ó Doinn, Miriam Downey, and Siobhán O’Connor

–.98) .93 (.86–.97) 2.16 2.94 4.8 6.7 6.0 8.2 13.4 18.4 Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient; MDC 95 , minimal detectable change at a 95% CI; SEM, standard error of measurement. Significance of P value set at <.05. Table 2 Intertester Reliability of Hip

Restricted access

Test–Retest of a Novel Wii Board–Based Device to Assess Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength During the Nordic Hamstring Exercise

Maria de Cássia Macedo, Matheus Almeida Souza, Geyson de Lima Batista, Michelle Almeida Barbosa, and Alexandre Carvalho Barbosa

. Standard error of measurement, percentage of SEM as a coefficient of variation (%SEM = SEM × 100/mean of days 1 and 2), and minimal detectable change (MDC) at a 95% confidence level (MDC = SEM × 1.96 × √2) were calculated. A %SEM of 10% or less was set as the level at which a measure was considered

Open access

Using a Mobile Application to Assess Knee Valgus in Healthy and Post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Participants

Kai-Yu Ho, Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson, and Catherine Turner

legs were combined for each task during analysis. Interrater and intrarater reliability were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3, k ) and standard error of measurement (SEM). ICC values were classified according to the following criteria 5 : poor (<.4), fair (.4–.7), good (.7

Restricted access

Turkish Translation, Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Validity of the Exercise-Induced Leg Pain Questionnaire

Fatih Özden, Mehmet Özkeskin, Serkan Bakırhan, and Tonguç Osman Mutlu

standard error of measurement with 95% confidence is a metric that shows how far measured test results differ from a “real” score. 24 The following formulas calculated MDC 95 and 95% confidence  (SEM 95 ) standard error of measurement values of T-EILP. 25 MDC 95 = 1.96 × SEM 95 × 2 , SEM 95 = SD × ( 1