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David R. Bassett, Patty S. Freedson and Dinesh John

behaviors. In summary, despite the overwhelming evidence that physical activity is an important health behavior, the goal of obtaining accurate and standardized measures of it has remained elusive. Recently, a metric gaining acceptance with physicians, patients, and the general public is steps per day

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Alaaddine El-Chab and Miriam E. Clegg

In 2010, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published the first edition of guidelines for standardizing the determination of the glycemic index (GI) of foods for practice and research purposes ( International Standards Office, 2010 ). According to the report, subjects should

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Craig J. Newsam, Cindy Leese and Jennifer Fernandez-Silva

Context:

Standardization of training load using the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test cannot be directly applied when using elastic bands as resistance.

Objective:

To determine the intratester reliability for establishing an 8-repetition maximum (8RM) using elastic bands.

Design:

Test–retest.

Participants:

5 men, 10 women, 23–29 years.

Intervention:

An 8RM test was established for 3 shoulder exercises using the Dura-Band® exercise system.

Main Outcome Measures:

The length of the elastic band was recorded. An analysis of variance was performed, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise.

Results:

Intratester reliability for determining the elastic-band length required to establish an 8RM was very high for internal rotation (ICC = .91) and high for external rotation (ICC = .77). The diagonal pull-down 8RM test had moderate reliability (ICC = .65).

Conclusion:

Training load can be reliably standardized in healthy young adults using moderate-to high-resistance elastic bands with a goal-based multiple-RM test.

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Michael J.A. Speranza, Tim J. Gabbett, David A. Greene, Rich D. Johnston and Andrew D. Townshend

allow fewer meters in defense and are involved in fewer ineffective tackles than losing teams. 2 , 3 An increasing body of research has examined tackling ability in rugby league players through the video analysis of a standardized one-on-one tackling drill. 4 – 6 These studies investigated tackle

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Eoin Everard, Mark Lyons and Andrew J. Harrison

. All 3 studies involved raters, who were founders of the LESS. The reliability reported may be high in these studies due to the intimate knowledge the founders would have of the screen. Therefore, it is unclear whether the reliability of the LESS would be similar in raters using only the standardized

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Callum G. Brownstein, Derek Ball, Dominic Micklewright and Neil V. Gibson

sprints ( 12 ), and recovery modality ( 6 ). However, an important consideration that is often overlooked when implementing repeated-sprint training is the individual differences in the capacity to recover between sprints, with research to date primarily employing standardized recovery durations ( 5 , 6

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Melissa R. Taylor, Erin E. Sutton, Wiebke S. Diestelkamp and Kimberly Edginton Bigelow

The goal of this study was to examine the effects of 3 factors and their interactions on posturography: a period of time to become accustomed to the force platform before the initiation of data collection, presence of a visual fixation point, and participant talking during testing. The postural stability of 30 young adults and 30 older adults was evaluated to determine whether any observed effects were confounded with age. Analysis of variance techniques were used to test all possible combinations of the 3 factors. We hypothesized that all 3 factors would significantly affect postural stability. For both participant groups, the results suggest that a period of time to become accustomed to the force platform before the initiation of data collection and a visual fixation point significantly affect postural control measures, while brief participant talking does not. Despite this, no significant interactions existed suggesting that the effects of these factors, which may occur in clinical testing, do not depend on each other. Our results suggest that inconsistencies in posturography testing methods have the potential to significantly affect the results of posturography, underscoring the importance of developing a standardized testing methodology.

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Nikki A. Jeacocke and Louise M. Burke

When testing is undertaken to monitor an athlete’s progress toward competition goals or the effect of an intervention on athletic outcomes, sport scientists should aim to minimize extraneous variables that influence the reliability, sensitivity, or validity of performance measurement. Dietary preparation is known to influence metabolism and exercise performance. Few studies, however, systematically investigate the outcomes of protocols that acutely control or standardize dietary intake in the hours and days before a performance trial. This review discusses the nutrients and dietary components that should be standardized before performance testing and reviews current approaches to achieving this. The replication of habitual diet or dietary practices, using tools such as food diaries or dietary recalls to aid compliance and monitoring, is a common strategy, and the use of education aids to help athletes achieve dietary targets offers a similarly low burden on the researcher. However, examination of dietary intake from real-life examples of these protocols reveals large variability between and within participants. Providing participants with prepackaged diets reduces this variability but can increase the burden on participants, as well as the researcher. Until studies can better quantify the effect of different protocols of dietary standardization on performance testing, sport scientists can only use a crude cost–benefit analysis to choose the protocols they implement. At the least, study reports should provide a more comprehensive description of the dietary-standardization protocols used in the research and the effect of these on the dietary intake of participants during the period of interest.

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Moritz Schumann, Javier Botella, Laura Karavirta and Keijo Häkkinen

Purpose:

To compare the effects of a standardized endurance-training program with individualized endurance training modified based on the cumulative training load provided by the Polar training-load feature.

Methods:

After 12 wk of similar training, 24 recreationally endurance-trained men were matched to a training-load-guided (TL, n = 10) or standardized (ST, n = 14) group and continued training for 12 wk. In TL, training sessions were individually chosen daily based on an estimated cumulative training load, whereas in ST the training was standardized with 4–6 sessions/wk. Endurance performance (shortest 1000-m running time during an incremental field test of 6 × 1000 m) and heart-rate variability (HRV) were measured every 4 wk, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured during an incremental treadmill test every 12 wk.

Results:

During weeks 1–12, similar changes in VO2max and 1000-m time were observed in TL (+7% ± 4%, P = .004 and –6% ± 4%, P = .069) and ST (+5% ± 7%, P = .019 and –8% ± 5%, P < .001). During wk 13–24, VO2max statistically increased in ST only (3% ± 4%, P = .034). The 1000-m time decreased in TL during wk 13–24 (–9% ± 5%, P = .011), but in ST only during wk 13–20 (–3% ± 2%, P = .003). The overall changes in VO2max and 1000-m time during wk 0–24 were similar in TL (+7% ± 4%, P = .001 and –9% ± 5%, P = .011) and ST (+10% ± 7%, P < .001 and –13% ± 5%, P < .001). No between-groups differences in total training volume and frequency were observed. HRV remained statistically unaltered in both groups.

Conclusions:

The main finding was that training performed according to the cumulative training load led to improvements in endurance performance similar to those with standardized endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

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Crystal L. Coolbaugh and David A. Hawkins

Wearable accelerometer-based activity monitors (AMs) are used to estimate energy expenditure and ground reaction forces in free-living environments, but a lack of standardized calibration and data reporting methods limits their utility. The objectives of this study were to (1) design an inexpensive and easily reproducible AM testing system, (2) develop a standardized calibration method for accelerometer-based AMs, and (3) evaluate the utility of the system and accuracy of the calibration method. A centrifuge-type device was constructed to apply known accelerations (0-8g) to each sensitive axis of 30 custom and two commercial AMs. Accelerometer data were recorded and matrix algebra and a least squares solution were then used to determine a calibration matrix for the custom AMs to convert raw accelerometer output to units of g’s. Accuracy was tested by comparing applied and calculated accelerations for custom and commercial AMs. AMs were accurate to within 4% of applied accelerations. The relatively inexpensive AM testing system (< $100) and calibration method has the potential to improve the sharing of AM data, the ability to compare data from different studies, and the accuracy of AM-based models to estimate various physiological and biomechanical quantities of interest in field-based assessments of physical activity.