behaviors. In summary, despite the overwhelming evidence that physical activity is an important health behavior, the goal of obtaining accurate and standardized measures of it has remained elusive. Recently, a metric gaining acceptance with physicians, patients, and the general public is steps per day
David R. Bassett, Patty S. Freedson, and Dinesh John
Alaaddine El-Chab and Miriam E. Clegg
In 2010, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published the first edition of guidelines for standardizing the determination of the glycemic index (GI) of foods for practice and research purposes ( International Standards Office, 2010 ). According to the report, subjects should
Craig J. Newsam, Cindy Leese, and Jennifer Fernandez-Silva
Standardization of training load using the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test cannot be directly applied when using elastic bands as resistance.
To determine the intratester reliability for establishing an 8-repetition maximum (8RM) using elastic bands.
5 men, 10 women, 23–29 years.
An 8RM test was established for 3 shoulder exercises using the Dura-Band® exercise system.
Main Outcome Measures:
The length of the elastic band was recorded. An analysis of variance was performed, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise.
Intratester reliability for determining the elastic-band length required to establish an 8RM was very high for internal rotation (ICC = .91) and high for external rotation (ICC = .77). The diagonal pull-down 8RM test had moderate reliability (ICC = .65).
Training load can be reliably standardized in healthy young adults using moderate-to high-resistance elastic bands with a goal-based multiple-RM test.
Jessica G. Hunter, Alexander M.B. Smith, Lena M. Sciarratta, Stephen Suydam, Jae Kun Shim, and Ross H. Miller
Studies of running mechanics often have all subjects use standardized “lab shoes” with the same make and model for all subjects. 1 – 4 The objective of using lab shoes is ostensibly to remove a source of variance between subjects, so that the differences between subjects can be more confidently
Melissa R. Taylor, Erin E. Sutton, Wiebke S. Diestelkamp, and Kimberly Edginton Bigelow
The goal of this study was to examine the effects of 3 factors and their interactions on posturography: a period of time to become accustomed to the force platform before the initiation of data collection, presence of a visual fixation point, and participant talking during testing. The postural stability of 30 young adults and 30 older adults was evaluated to determine whether any observed effects were confounded with age. Analysis of variance techniques were used to test all possible combinations of the 3 factors. We hypothesized that all 3 factors would significantly affect postural stability. For both participant groups, the results suggest that a period of time to become accustomed to the force platform before the initiation of data collection and a visual fixation point significantly affect postural control measures, while brief participant talking does not. Despite this, no significant interactions existed suggesting that the effects of these factors, which may occur in clinical testing, do not depend on each other. Our results suggest that inconsistencies in posturography testing methods have the potential to significantly affect the results of posturography, underscoring the importance of developing a standardized testing methodology.
Arda Alan Işık and Louis Moustakas
throughout these years as the current state of coaching and coach education in Turkey has been criticized due to its disjointed nature ( Erdoğan, 2011 ; Ziyagil, 2020 ). Primary concerns are related to the lack of standardization in coach education, lack of proper examination mechanisms, and exemptions in
Michael J.A. Speranza, Tim J. Gabbett, David A. Greene, Rich D. Johnston, and Andrew D. Townshend
allow fewer meters in defense and are involved in fewer ineffective tackles than losing teams. 2 , 3 An increasing body of research has examined tackling ability in rugby league players through the video analysis of a standardized one-on-one tackling drill. 4 – 6 These studies investigated tackle
Eoin Everard, Mark Lyons, and Andrew J. Harrison
. All 3 studies involved raters, who were founders of the LESS. The reliability reported may be high in these studies due to the intimate knowledge the founders would have of the screen. Therefore, it is unclear whether the reliability of the LESS would be similar in raters using only the standardized
Callum G. Brownstein, Derek Ball, Dominic Micklewright, and Neil V. Gibson
sprints ( 12 ), and recovery modality ( 6 ). However, an important consideration that is often overlooked when implementing repeated-sprint training is the individual differences in the capacity to recover between sprints, with research to date primarily employing standardized recovery durations ( 5 , 6
Nikki A. Jeacocke and Louise M. Burke
When testing is undertaken to monitor an athlete’s progress toward competition goals or the effect of an intervention on athletic outcomes, sport scientists should aim to minimize extraneous variables that influence the reliability, sensitivity, or validity of performance measurement. Dietary preparation is known to influence metabolism and exercise performance. Few studies, however, systematically investigate the outcomes of protocols that acutely control or standardize dietary intake in the hours and days before a performance trial. This review discusses the nutrients and dietary components that should be standardized before performance testing and reviews current approaches to achieving this. The replication of habitual diet or dietary practices, using tools such as food diaries or dietary recalls to aid compliance and monitoring, is a common strategy, and the use of education aids to help athletes achieve dietary targets offers a similarly low burden on the researcher. However, examination of dietary intake from real-life examples of these protocols reveals large variability between and within participants. Providing participants with prepackaged diets reduces this variability but can increase the burden on participants, as well as the researcher. Until studies can better quantify the effect of different protocols of dietary standardization on performance testing, sport scientists can only use a crude cost–benefit analysis to choose the protocols they implement. At the least, study reports should provide a more comprehensive description of the dietary-standardization protocols used in the research and the effect of these on the dietary intake of participants during the period of interest.