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Brian D. Dauenhauer, Xiaofen D. Keating and Dolly Lambdin

, primarily due to the growth of the standards, assessment, and accountability movement and advances in new technologies capable of assisting with the collection and management of large volumes of data ( Brunner et al., 2005 ; Mandinach & Jackson, 2012 ). National policies such as No Child Left Behind ( NCLB

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Lori Gano-Overway, Pete Van Mullem, Melissa Long, Melissa Thompson, Bob Benham, Christine Bolger, Andrew Driska, Anthony Moreno and Dan Schuster

standards ( Thompson, 2019 ), follow safety guidelines ( Côté, Bruner, Erickson, Strachan, & Fraser-Thomas, 2010 ), and continue to improve their professional knowledge ( Hedlund, Fletcher, Pack, & Dahlin, 2018 ). Due to the various situations (e.g., participation- vs. performance-based sport) in which

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Susan Wilkinson, Kay M. Williamson and Ruth Rozdilsky

Issues concerning children’s fitness levels and fitness tests have been prevalent in the literature. Topics include whether fitness levels of American youth have declined and whether fitness tests are reliable, valid, and appropriate. Schools have questioned the merit of fitness tests, as opposed to fitness as an activity toward a healthy lifestyle. Absent from discussion are various moral and ethical implications embedded in the differential performance criteria set for boys and girls of the same age. Given the physiological similarity between boys and girls until age 12, this study was conducted to determine if there was a significant difference between fitness scores of boys and girls aged 10 through 13 years on the Physical Best test battery to warrant differential performance criteria. Girls were found to be significantly more flexible than boys on the sit and reach test, while boys performed significantly more pull-ups on the pull-up test. Prior to age 13 there were no statistically significant differences between mean fitness scores of girls and boys of the same age, even though established performance criteria are lower for girls than for boys. It is apparent that potential gender bias exists in the determination of Physical Best’s performance criteria for boys and girls. The consequences of differential expectations are discussed and a call for the re-evaluation of fitness standards are included.

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Darla Castelli and Lori Williams

This study examined what teachers know about health-related fitness (HRF) and how confident they are in their knowledge. Seventy-three middle school physical education teachers completed a 3-part cognitive HRF test and a self-efficacy questionnaire that required responses to statements about how confident they were in passing a HRF knowledge test. Results indicated that teachers were very confident in their knowledge of HRF; however, their actual HRF test scores did not meet the standard of achievement expected of a ninth-grade student as assessed by the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Further investigation of the influence of teacher characteristics related to HRF knowledge revealed that age and years of teaching experience significantly related to self-efficacy but not to HRF knowledge. This study implies that targeted teacher development is a necessary part of attaining and maintaining HRF knowledge required to teach to state and national standards.

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Cory J. Greever and Matthew N. Ahmadi

constrained by other demands, such as meeting early education learning standards (state-mandated policies). Therefore, the majority of health behavior interventions that have been implemented by teachers have reported minimal to no significant change in health behaviors. 12 , 13 Such findings could

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Matthew S. Tenan, Andrew J. Tweedell and Courtney A. Haynes

mean of the 6 visual assessments (2 from each investigator) was used as the ‘gold standard’ for contrasting with the algorithmic approaches. 2 , 14 Algorithmic Detection of Muscle Onset Prior to algorithmic analysis, the raw waveform was zero-lag bandpass filtered (10 Hz–1 kHz) to remove

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Michael W. Beets, Rohan Shah, Robert Glenn Weaver, Jennifer Huberty, Aaron Beighle and Justin B. Moore


After-school programs (ASPs) across the nation have been asked to increase the amount of activity children accumulate during such programs. Policies/standards that benchmark the amount of total activity (light-to-vigorous physical activity, LVPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) accumulated in an ASP have been developed. Little is known about the prevalence of children meeting these goals.


Children (N = 812, 6 to 12 y old) attending 19 ASPs wore accelerometers for 4 days while attending an ASP. LVPA and MVPA were dichotomized according to existing ASP policies/standards. Data on whether a policy/standard was met were compared between gender, age, BMI, race/ethnicity, and ASP-type (faith-, school-, community-based) using mixed-model logistic-regression.


The prevalence of meeting an LVPA policy/standard ranged from 75.4% (National Afterschool Association [NAA], 20% of program time spent in LVPA) to 97.8% (NAA, 20% of time in attendance spent in LVPA), and meeting an MVPA policy/standard ranged from 0.3% (California, 60 min MVPA/d) to 26.9% (North Carolina, 20% of attendance spent in MVPA). Boys, younger children, nonwhites, and children attending faithor community-based ASPs were more likely to meet any policy/standard.


Current practice in ASPs is sufficient to meet LVPA policies/standards but insufficient to meet MVPA policy/standards. Efforts must be directed toward identifying the most appropriate policy/standard and strategies to meet it.

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Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

ascertain the extent to which current evidence supports the use of BFR to reduce quadriceps muscle atrophy following ACLR in comparison with standard care. Focused Clinical Question Is BFR more effective than standard care for reducing quadriceps atrophy after ACLR? Summary of Search, “Best Evidence

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C. Jessie Jones and Janie Clark

Because of the recognized value of exercise for older adults, senior fitness programs have been developed in various facilities throughout the United States and in many other countries. However, there appears to be a shortage of professionally trained senior fitness specialists to develop and instruct such programs. A number of professional health and fitness organizations/associations and individual entrepreneurs have developed training programs leading to some type of certification. However, because there are no published curriculum standards to guide the development of these training programs, they often lack components essential for teaching students how to instruct safe and effective classes for senior participants. Curriculum Standards to Prepare Senior Fitness Instructors, developed by a national coalition, were presented at the 1995 International Conference on Aging and Physical Activity in Colorado. This project was undertaken not to promote national certification or licensing but, rather, to help educators plan training programs. Input from the conferees was synthesized into the standards, which are provided in this paper.

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Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball and Ben Desbrow

Personal trainers are well placed to provide nutrition care in line with their recommended scope of practice. However, providing nutrition care beyond their recommended scope of practice has been identified as an industry risk. The International Confederation of Registers for Exercise Professionals (ICREPs) have international standards for nutrition knowledge and skills that are recommended for all fitness professionals, including personal trainers. This study investigates whether the ICREPs standards align with i) national nutrition education standards and ii) national nutrition occupational standards and scopes of practice for personal trainers within ICREPs affiliated countries. Content analysis of each standard and/or scope of practice was undertaken to extract nutrition statements. Extracted statements were matched with nutrition components of the ICREPs standards to result in a score based on the number of aligned ICREPs knowledge and skills criteria. Ten countries, with 16 organizations, were identified as being involved in the development of national education standards, occupational standards, or scopes of practice for personal trainers. The educational and occupational standards varied widely among countries and had minimal alignment with the ICREPs standards. As such, the expected role of personal trainers in providing nutrition care appeared to differ between countries. Further work is required to support personal trainers to develop a level of knowledge and skills that enables the provision of safe, consistent, and effective nutrition care.