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Murielle Grangeon, Cindy Gauthier, Cyril Duclos, Jean-Francois Lemay and Dany Gagnon

The study aimed to (1) compare postural stability between sitting and standing in healthy individuals and (2) define center-of-pressure (COP) measures during sitting that could also explain standing stability. Fourteen healthy individuals randomly maintained (1) two short-sitting positions with eyes open or closed, with or without hand support, and (2) one standing position with eyes open with both upper limbs resting alongside the body. Thirty-six COP measures based on time and frequency series were computed. Greater COP displacement and velocity along with lower frequency measures were found for almost all directional components during standing compared with both sitting positions. The velocity, 95% confidence ellipse area, and centroidal frequency were found to be correlated between unsupported sitting and standing. Despite evidenced differences between sitting and standing, similarities in postural control were highlighted when sitting stability was the most challenging. These findings support further investigation between dynamic sitting and standing balance.

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Ian M. Greenlund, Piersan E. Suriano, Steven J. Elmer, Jason R. Carter and John J. Durocher

others, office workers may consider a standing desk to sit less and potentially reduce health risks. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that standing workstations can provide cardiovascular benefits ranging from improved cardiometabolic risk factors 9 to lower ambulatory blood pressure. 10

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Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle and Erika Nelson-Wong

Prolonged standing has been shown to be one of the greatest risk factors for occupational low back pain (LBP) in workers across several industries. 1 – 3 Previous studies have shown 40% to 70% of individuals, without history of LBP, will develop transient LBP during a 2-hour standing period. 4 – 9

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Saud F. Alsubaie, Susan L. Whitney, Joseph M. Furman, Gregory F. Marchetti, Kathleen H. Sienko and Patrick J. Sparto

their balance assessed across a variety of domains. 6 For example, the ability to use various sensory systems to maintain upright standing balance can be assessed using the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance. 7 The 6 conditions in the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance

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Janina M. Prado-Rico and Marcos Duarte

our upright standing, we also seem to be asymmetrical, although this is yet to be determined, given the myriad of body postures, we adopt daily when standing in a relaxed manner. When standing naturally in daily life activities, also referred here as relaxed standing, people stand in an unconstrained

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Kazuto Sakita, Matthew K. Seeley, Joseph William Myrer and J. Ty Hopkins

Context:

Standing and side-lying external-rotation exercises produce high activation of the deltoid and infraspinatus. Slight shoulder abduction during these exercises may decrease deltoid activity and increase infraspinatus activity.

Objective:

To determine if the addition of a towel under the arm during standing and side-lying external rotation affects infraspinatus, middle and posterior deltoid, and pectoralis major activation characteristics compared with a no-towel condition.

Design:

Controlled laboratory study.

Participants:

20 male volunteers (age 26 ± 3 y, height 1.80 ± 0.07 m, mass 77 ± 10 kg) who were right-hand dominant and had bilaterally healthy shoulders with no current cervical pathology and no skin infection or shoulder lesion.

Interventions:

External-rotation exercises without a towel roll (0° shoulder abduction) and with a towel roll (30° shoulder abduction) were performed in a standing and side-lying.

Main Outcome Measures:

Maximal voluntary isometric contraction for the infraspinatus, middle and posterior deltoid, and pectoralis major and external rotation in standing and side-lying with and without a towel roll were performed. Normalized average and peak surface EMG amplitude were compared between the towel conditions during standing and side-lying external rotation.

Results:

Both infraspinatus and pectoralis major activity had no significant differences between the towel conditions in standing and side-lying (P > .05). In standing and side-lying, posterior-deltoid activity was significantly greater with a towel roll (P < .05). Middle-deltoid activity had no significant differences between the towel conditions in standing (P > .05). However, in side-lying, middle-deltoid activity was significantly lower with a towel roll (P < .05).

Conclusion:

Middle-deltoid activity decreased with a towel roll during side-lying exercises. More data are needed to determine if a towel roll could be used to potentially reduce superior glide during external-rotation exercises.

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Brittany T. MacEwen, Travis J. Saunders, Dany J. MacDonald and Jamie F. Burr

Background:

Sit-stand desks reduce workplace sitting time among healthy office workers; however, their metabolic and behavioral impact in higher risk populations remains unknown.

Methods:

25 office workers with abdominal obesity were randomized to an intervention (sit-stand workstation) or control group (seated desk) for 12 weeks. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed before and after the intervention period in both groups.

Results:

In comparison with the control group, which did not change, the intervention group experienced significant reductions in workday (344 ± 107 to 186 ± 101 min/day) and total (645 ± 140 to 528 ± 91 min/day) sitting time, as well as increases in workday standing time (154 ± 108 to 301 ± 101 min/day, P < .05). There were no changes in sitting or standing time outside of work hours, steps taken each day, or any marker of cardiometabolic risk in either group (all P > .05).

Conclusion:

Sit-stand desks were effective in reducing workplace sedentary behavior in an at-risk population, with no change in sedentary behavior or physical activity outside of work hours. However, these changes were not sufficient to improve markers of cardiometabolic risk in this population.

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Julia Rudecki, Katie Weatherson and Guy Faulkner

promotes standing or light movements. The prevalence of SB is high in many countries. 7 It is estimated that Canadian adults spend on average 9.6 hours in SB during their waking day. 8 Common activities that contributed to this finding included driving, desk work, watching television, and engaging with

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Courtney L. Pollock, Michael A. Hunt, Taian M. Vieira, Alessio Gallina, Tanya D. Ivanova and S. Jayne Garland

Sa Ferreira, 2014 ). Postural sway velocity is suggested to contain greater afferent information (direction and speed of position change) than sway position, hence facilitating more effective motor commands to control standing balance ( Masani et al., 2003 ; Portela et al., 2014 ). Poor balance

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A. Paige Lane, Sergio L. Molina, DaShae A. Tolleson, Stephen J. Langendorfer, Jacqueline D. Goodway and David F. Stodden

describe how motor tasks change qualitatively. The standing long jump is one motor task with a long history of study in motor development research ( Hellebrandt, Rarick, Glassow, & Carns, 1961 ; McCaskill & Wellman, 1938 ) and is incorporated into many games and athletic endeavors. Along with its long