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Paolo Taboga, Alena M. Grabowski, Pietro Enrico di Prampero and Rodger Kram

In the 2012 Paralympic 100 m and 200 m finals, 86% of athletes with a unilateral amputation placed their unaffected leg on the front starting block. Can this preference be explained biomechanically? We measured the biomechanical effects of starting block configuration for seven nonamputee sprinters and nine athletes with a unilateral amputation. Each subject performed six starts, alternating between their usual and unusual starting block configurations. When sprinters with an amputation placed their unaffected leg on the front block, they developed 6% greater mean resultant combined force compared with the opposite configuration (1.38 ± 0.06 vs 1.30 ± 0.11 BW, P = .015). However, because of a more vertical push angle, horizontal acceleration performance was equivalent between starting block configurations. We then used force data from each sprinter with an amputation to calculate the hypothetical starting mechanics for a virtual nonamputee (two unaffected legs) and a virtual bilateral amputee (two affected legs). Accelerations of virtual bilateral amputees were 15% slower compared with athletes with a unilateral amputation, which in turn were 11% slower than virtual nonamputees. Our biomechanical data do not explain the starting block configuration preference but they do explain the starting performance differences observed between nonamputee athletes and those with leg amputations.

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Mitsuo Otsuka, Jae Kun Shim, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Makoto Nokata and Tadao Isaka

In sprinters with different levels of block acceleration, we investigated differences in their three-dimensional force application in terms of the magnitude, direction, and impulse of the ground reaction force (GRF) during the starting block phase and subsequent two steps. Twenty-nine participants were divided into three groups (well-trained, trained, and nontrained sprinters) based on their mean anteroposterior block acceleration and experience with a block start. The participants sprinted 10 m from a block start with maximum effort. Although the mean net resultant GRF magnitude did not differ between the well-trained and trained sprinters, the net sagittal GRF vector of the well-trained sprinters was leaned significantly further forward than that of the trained and nontrained sprinters during the starting block phase. In contrast, during the starting block phase and the subsequent steps, the transverse GRF vectors which cause the anteroposterior and mediolateral acceleration of the whole-body was directed toward the anterior direction more in the well-trained sprinters as compared with the other sprinters. Therefore, a more forward-leaning GRF vector and a greater anteroposterior GRF may particularly allow well-trained sprinters to generate a greater mean anteroposterior block acceleration than trained and nontrained sprinters.

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Elaine Tor, David L. Pease and Kevin A. Ball

The swimming start is highly influential to overall competition performance. Therefore, it is paramount to develop reliable methods to perform accurate biomechanical analysis of start performance for training and research. The Wetplate Analysis System is a custom-made force plate system developed by the Australian Institute of Sport—Aquatic Testing, Training and Research Unit (AIS ATTRU). This sophisticated system combines both force data and 2D digitization to measure a number of kinetic and kinematic parameter values in an attempt to evaluate start performance. Fourteen elite swimmers performed two maximal effort dives (performance was defined as time from start signal to 15 m) over two separate testing sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine each parameter’s reliability. The kinetic parameters all had ICC greater than 0.9 except the time of peak vertical force (0.742). This may have been due to variations in movement initiation after the starting signal between trials. The kinematic and time parameters also had ICC greater than 0.9 apart from for the time of maximum depth (0.719). This parameter was lower due to the swimmers varying their depth between trials. Based on the high ICC scores for all parameters, the Wetplate Analysis System is suitable for biomechanical analysis of swimming starts.

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Claire J. Brady, Andrew J. Harrison, Eamonn P. Flanagan, G. Gregory Haff and Thomas M. Comyns

Successful performance in sprint events requires rapid acceleration and a high maximum velocity. The starting-block phase and the subsequent acceleration phase are 2 important phases of sprint events, shown to directly generate results in a 60- and 100-m sprints. 1 During the acceleration phase

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Antonio C.S. Guimaraes and James G. Hay

The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanical characteristics of the hands-between-the-feet grab starting technique which contribute to a faster start. Twenty-four high school swimmers performed four trials of a grab start followed by a glide to a distance of 9 m. The results suggested that to obtain a faster start, swimmers should (a) move the center of mass fast in the forward direction while the feet are in contact with the starting block, (b) maximize the force exerted through the feet in the backward direction, and (c) maximize the force exerted through the hands against the starting block in the forward and upward direction.

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Yusuke Ikeda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Rio Nara, Yasuhiro Baba, Yoshimitsu Shimoyama and Yasuyuki Kubo

This study investigated factors that determine the velocity of the center of mass (CM) and flight distance from a track start to devise effective technical and physical training methods. Nine male and 5 female competitive swimmers participated in this study. Kinematics and ground reaction forces of the front and back legs were recorded using a video camera and force plates. The track start was modeled as an inverted pendulum system including a compliant leg, connecting the CM and front edge of the starting block. The increase in the horizontal velocity of the CM immediately after the start signal was closely correlated with the rotational component of the inverted pendulum. This rotational component at hands-off was significantly correlated with the average vertical force of the back plate from the start signal to hands-off (r = .967, P < .001). The flight distance / height was significantly correlated with the average vertical force of the front plate from the back foot-off to front foot-off (r = .783, P < .01). The results indicate that the legs on the starting block in the track start play a different role in the behavior of the inverted pendulum.

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George Vagenas and T. Blaine Hoshizaki

The sprint starts of 15 skilled sprinters were filmed and their sprinting times recorded while they were performing four 20-meter sprinting trials. They employed their natural hand-block spacings with alternative leg placements in the front starting block. The subjects were tested for dynamic strength on a force platform and their stronger leg was determined. Selected qualitative variables concerning certain perceived characteristics of lateral dominance and preferred leg for some basic motor skills were identified using a questionnaire. Significantly greater takeoff velocities and faster sprinting times were found when the stronger leg was placed in the front block. Previous empirical methods used in determining the best front leg in the start were found unreliable. Even some experienced sprinters fail to use their optimal leg in the forward position. Dynamic lower limb strength asymmetry was established as the key determinant in optimizing leg placement in the sprint start.

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Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila, Jesús Dapena and José Campos

Pre-tensed and conventional starts that exert, respectively, large and small forces against the starting blocks in the “set” position (0.186 vs. 0.113 N per newton of body weight) were analyzed. The starts were videotaped, and the horizontal forces exerted on feet and hands were obtained from separate force plates. In the pre-tensed start, the legs received larger forward impulses early in the acceleration (0.18 vs. 0.15 N·s per kilogram of mass in the first 0.05 s), but the hands received larger backward impulses (–0.08 vs. –0.04 N·s·kg–1). At the end of the acceleration phase, there was no significant difference in horizontal velocity between the two types of start and only trivial differences in the center of mass positions. The results did not show a clear performance change when the feet were pressed hard against the blocks while waiting for the gun.

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Erik Schrödter, Gert-Peter Brüggemann and Steffen Willwacher


To describe the stretch-shortening behavior of ankle plantar-flexing muscle–tendon units (MTUs) during the push-off in a sprint start.


Fifty-four male (100-m personal best: 9.58–12.07 s) and 34 female (100-m personal best: 11.05–14.00 s) sprinters were analyzed using an instrumented starting block and 2-dimensional high-speed video imaging. Analysis was performed separately for front and rear legs, while accounting for block obliquities and performance levels.


The results showed clear signs of a dorsiflexion in the upper ankle joint (front block 15.8° ± 7.4°, 95% CI 13.2–18.2°; rear block 8.0° ± 5.7°, 95% CI 6.4–9.7°) preceding plantar flexion. When observed in their natural block settings, the athletes’ block obliquity did not significantly affect push-off characteristics. It seems that the stretch-shortening-cycle-like motion of the soleus MTU has an enhancing influence on push-off force generation.


This study provides the first systematic observation of ankle-joint stretch-shortening behavior for sprinters of a wide range of performance levels. The findings highlight the importance of reactive-type training for the improvement of starting performance. Nonetheless, future studies need to resolve the independent contributions of tendinous and muscle-fascicle structures to overall MTU performance.

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H. Galbraith, J. Scurr, C. Hencken, L. Wood and P. Graham-Smith

This study compared the conventional track and a new one-handed track start in elite age group swimmers to determine if the new technique had biomechanical implications on dive performance. Five male and seven female GB national qualifiers participated (mean ± SD: age 16.7 ± 1.9 years, stretched stature 1.76 ± 0.8 m, body mass 67.4 ± 7.9 kg) and were assigned to a control group (n = 6) or an intervention group (n = 6) that learned the new one-handed dive technique. All swimmers underwent a 4-week intervention comprising 12 ± 3 thirty-minute training sessions. Video cameras synchronized with an audible signal and timing suite captured temporal and kinematic data. A portable force plate and load cell handrail mounted to a swim starting block collected force data over 3 trials of each technique. A MANCOVA identified Block Time (BT), Flight Time (FT), Peak Horizontal Force of the lower limbs (PHF) and Horizontal Velocity at Take-off (Vx) as covariates. During the 10-m swim trial, significant differences were found in Time to 10 m (TT10m), Total Time (TT), Peak Vertical Force (PVF), Flight Distance (FD), and Horizontal Velocity at Take-off (Vx) (p < .05). Results indicated that the conventional track start method was faster over 10 m, and therefore may be seen as a superior start after a short intervention. During training, swimmers and coaches should focus on the most statistically significant dive performance variables: peak horizontal force and velocity at take-off, block and flight time.