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James W. Navalta, Jeffrey Montes, Nathaniel G. Bodell, Charli D. Aguilar, Ana Lujan, Gabriela Guzman, Brandi K. Kam, Jacob W. Manning and Mark DeBeliso

, Sattar, & Lean, 2017 ). In order for individuals to truly attain their step goals, the ability to accurately determine step count becomes important. Wearable technology was rated as the top fitness trend the past two years ( Thompson, 2015 , 2016 ), and this tendency is expected to grow as the use of

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Lindsay P. Toth, Susan Park, Whitney L. Pittman, Damla Sarisaltik, Paul R. Hibbing, Alvin L. Morton, Cary M. Springer, Scott E. Crouter and David R. Bassett

Steps are an intuitive metric for assessing ambulatory physical activity ( Crespo, Keteyian, Heath, & Sempos, 1996 ; Siegel, Brackbill, & Heath, 1995 ; Simpson et al., 2003 ). In research, daily step counts have been used for physical activity surveillance ( Bassett, Wyatt, Thompson, Peters

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Albert R. Mendoza, Kate Lyden, John Sirard, John Staudenmayer, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Patty S. Freedson

from the video and averaged. If there was a ≥ 5% difference between the two step count trials, the video was analyzed a third time and the average of the two closest total step counts was used for analysis. Two of 96 videos required a third measure. Training involved teaching observers how to identify

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Mhairi J. MacDonald, Samantha G. Fawkner, Ailsa G. Niven and David Rowe

adolescent population walking is a convenient alternative to active play and sports participation. To promote walking, researchers have sought to identify the required step count and step rate to achieve a health-enhancing number of steps and intensity of walking ( 1 , 3 , 24 , 30 , 35 ). In adults, 10

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Jaclyn Megan Sions, Elisa Sarah Arch and John Robert Horne

is, pedometers and accelerometers, with varied weight, size, cost, commercial availability, and data resolution, have been shown to be reliable 28 and valid 29 , 30 for objectively assessing daily step counts among individuals with lower-limb amputations. Accelerometers, electromechanical devices

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Tiago V. Barreira, John P. Bennett and Minsoo Kang

Purpose:

To obtain validity evidence for the measurement of step counts by spring-levered and piezoelectric pedometers during dance.

Methods:

Thirty-five adults in a college dance class participated in this study. Participants completed trials of 3- and 5-min of different styles of dance wearing Walk4life MVP and Omron HJ-303 pedometers, while their steps were visually counted. Pearson correlation, paired t-test, mean absolute percent error (MAPE), and mean bias were calculated between actual step and pedometer step counts for the 3- and 5-min dances separately.

Results:

For the Walk4life trials the correlations were .92 and .77 for the 3- and 5-min dances. No significant differences were shown by t-test for the 3- (P = .16) and 5-min dances (P = .60). However, MAPE was high, 17.7 ± 17.7% and 19.4 ± 18.3% for the 2 dance durations, respectively. For the Omron, the correlations were .44 and .58 for the 3- and 5-min dances, respectively. No significant differences were shown by t-test for the 3-min (P = .38) and for the 5-min (P = .88) dances. However, MAPE was high, 19.3 ± 16.4% and 26.6 ± 15.2% for the 2 dance durations, respectively.

Conclusions:

This study demonstrated that pedometers can be used to estimate the number of steps taken by a group of college students while dancing, however caution is necessary with individual values.

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Michael Pereira da Silva, Fabio Eduardo Fontana, Eric Callahan, Oldemar Mazzardo and Wagner De Campos

Background:

The aim of this systematic review was to identify the most optimal step-count cutoff for children and adolescents (5–19 years old) among guidelines currently available in the literature.

Methods:

The databases searched were PubMed, SportDiscus, Science Direct, Web of Science and LILACS. Studies were categorized into Health Cohort studies or Physical Activity (PA) Cohort studies according to the reference standard used. The quality of the studies was assessed using the QUADAS-2 instrument.

Results:

Six Health and 3 PA Cohort studies were included in the final pool of papers after Full Text reading. With the exception of a single study, studies demonstrated a high risk of methodological bias in at least 1 of the QUADAS-2 domains. Guidelines ranged from 10,000 to 16,000 steps/day for the Health studies (5–16 years old), and from 9,000 to 14,000 steps/day for PA studies (6–19 years old). Due to the high risk of methodological bias, none of the Health Cohort guidelines were endorsed. The PA Cohort study with the lowest risk of methodological bias suggested 12,000 steps/day for children and adolescents irrespective of gender.

Conclusion:

PA Cohort studies demonstrated lower risk of methodological bias than Health Cohort studies. The optimal youth step-count guideline of 12,000 steps/day was endorsed.

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Richard R. Rosenkranz, Sara K. Rosenkranz and Casey Weber

This study sought to assess criterion validity of the Actical monitor step-count function in children via ankle and waist placement, compared with observed video recordings. Children attending a summer program (12 boys, 7 girls, mean age = 9.6yrs, range 7–11yrs) wore two synchronized Acticals, attached at the ankle (AA) and waist (AW). Children performed treadmill walking at varying speeds, and two research assistants counted steps using observed video recordings (OVR). Results showed high correlations for AW-OVR (r = .927, p < .001) and AA-OVR (r = .854, p < .001), but AW and AA were significantly lower than OVR (t > 11.2, p < .001). AW provided better step estimates than AA for step rates above 130 steps per minute. In contrast, AA was superior to AW for slow walking, and measured more steps during the (nontreadmill) program time. Overall, the Actical monitor showed good evidence of validity as a measure of steps in children for population-based studies.

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Michael W. Beets, Aaron Beighle, Matteo Bottai, Laura Rooney and Fallon Tilley

Background:

Policies to require afterschool programs (ASPs, 3 PM to 6 PM) to provide children a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exist. With few low-cost, easy-to-use measures of MVPA available to the general public, ASP providers are limited in their ability to track progress toward achieving this policy-goal. Pedometers may fill this gap, yet there are no step-count guidelines for ASPs linked to 30 minutes of MVPA.

Methods:

Steps and accelerometer estimates of MVPA were collected concurrently over multiple days on 245 children (8.2 years, 48% boys, BMI-percentile 68.2) attending 3 community-based ASPs. Random intercept logit models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to identify a threshold of steps that corresponded with attaining 30 minutes of MVPA.

Results:

Children accumulated an average of 2876 steps (standard error [SE] 79) and 16.1 minutes (SE0.5) of MVPA over 111 minutes (SE1.3) during the ASP. A threshold of 4600 steps provided high specificity (0.967) and adequate sensitivity (0.646) for discriminating children who achieved the 30 minutes of MVPA; 93% of the children were correctly classified. The total area under the curve was 0.919. Children accumulating 4600 steps were 25times more likely to accumulate 30 minutes of MVPA.

Conclusions:

This step threshold will provide ASP leaders with an objective, low-cost, easy-to-use tool to monitor progress toward policy-related goals.

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

physical activity, and motivational variables compared with shorter exposures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an 18-week AVG classroom curriculum intervention on health-related fitness, school day step counts, and motivation in a sample of sixth-grade students from the