attend the ECEC services at least >6 hours per day at least twice per week. The follow-up measurement was conducted 12 months after the baseline. As no intervention effects were found for primary outcomes (change in sitting, standing, or stepping time—please see Supplementary Table S1 [available online
Zhiguang Zhang, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely, Xiaoqi Feng and Rute Santos
Yvonne G. Ellis, Dylan P. Cliff, Steven J. Howard and Anthony D. Okely
trained qualified childcare educator as developmentally appropriate. Parents were able to view their child in the calorimeter through a window and communicate with them via intercom if necessary. Table 1 Activities and Sitting, Standing, and Stepping Time During a Typical and Reduced Preschool Day
Thorlene Egerton, Kade Paterson and Jorunn L. Helbostad
This study aimed to determine if temporal-spatial gait characteristics are associated with free-living ambulatory physical activity in relatively-healthy older people. A total of 630 women and 593 men had valid data from gait tests and activity monitoring. Gait speed alone was associated with daily step count. Gait speed along with cadence, walk ratio, step length, step time, and swing time were associated with measures of higher intensity activity and overall activity. Those who walked slower were less active. After controlling for gait speed, shorter step length, shorter step time, shorter swing time, and higher cadence were associated with less activity. This finding may be an indication of the functional consequences of a breakdown in the stride length–cadence relationship and/or compensations to increase stability. Asymmetry measures at preferred and fast walking speeds showed no association with physical activity levels. Gait speed was the only predictor of change in activity over the subsequent 12 months.
Sirinun Boripuntakul and Somporn Sungkarat
The objective of this study was to examine the association between cognitive ability and gait initiation performance in older adults. Global and specific cognitive functions and spatiotemporal gait parameters during gait initiation were assessed in 60 older adults. Multivariate linear regression was conducted to determine the association between cognitive functions and gait initiation parameters. Results showed that global cognitive function was not associated with any of the spatiotemporal parameters. Poorer performance on measures of executive function and language ability were associated with shorter step length, narrower step width, and longer step time. In addition, poorer performance on test of visuospatial ability was associated with longer step time. In conclusion, specific but not global cognitive functions were associated with gait initiation performance. Clinical gait examination should incorporate gait initiation and cognitive assessments. Rehabilitation strategies aimed at improving cognition and gait initiation performance may be beneficial for preventing falls.
Giorgos P. Paradisis, Athanassios Bissas and Carlton B. Cooke
This study examined the effects of sprint running training on sloping surfaces (3°) on selected kinematic and physiological variables.
Fifty-four sport and physical education students were randomly allocated to one of two training groups (combined uphill–downhill [U+D] and horizontal (H)) and a control group (C). Pre- and post training tests were performed to examine the effects of 8 wk of training on the maximum running speed (MRS), step rate, step length, step time, contact time, eccentric and concentric phase of contact time (EP, CP), fight time, selected posture characteristics of the step cycle, and 6-s maximal cycle sprint test.
MRS, step rate, contact time, and step time were improved significantly in a 35-m sprint test for the U+D group (P < .01) after training by 4.3%, 4.3%, -5.1%, and -3.9% respectively, whereas the H group showed smaller improvements, (1.7% (P < .05), 1.2% (P < .01), 1.7% (P < .01), and 1.2% (P < .01) respectively). There were no significant changes in the C group. The posture characteristics and the peak anaerobic power (AWT) performance did not change with training in any of the groups.
The U+D training method was significantly more effective in improving MRS and the kinematic characteristics of sprint running than a traditional horizontal training method.
Hanatsu Nagano, Rezaul K. Begg, William A. Sparrow and Simon Taylor
Although lower limb strength becomes asymmetrical with age, past studies of aging effects on gait biomechanics have usually analyzed only one limb. This experiment measured how aging and treadmill surface influenced both dominant and nondominant step parameters in older (mean 74.0 y) and young participants (mean 21.9 y). Step-cycle parameters were obtained from 3-dimensional position/time data during preferred-speed walking for 40 trials along a 10 m walkway and for 10 minutes of treadmill walking. Walking speed (young 1.23 m/s, older 1.24 m/s) and step velocity for the two age groups were similar in overground walking but older adults showed significantly slower walking speed (young 1.26 m/s, older 1.05 m/s) and step velocity on the treadmill due to reduced step length and prolonged step time. Older adults had shorter step length than young adults and both groups reduced step length on the treadmill. Step velocity and length of older adults’ dominant limb was asymmetrically larger. Older adults increased the proportion of double support in step time when treadmill walking. This adaptation combined with reduced step velocity and length may preserve balance. The results suggest that bilateral analyses should be employed to accurately describe asymmetric features of gait especially for older adults.
Kelly Ohm and Michael E. Hahn
Gait termination can be challenging for balance-impaired populations, including lower limb amputees. As powered prosthetic ankle devices come to market, it is important to better understand gait termination timing in an unplanned situation. Timing patterns were examined in unplanned gait termination to determine a threshold for being able to terminate gait in 1 step. Time to terminate gait (TTG) was also examined, using both final heel strike and center of mass (COM) acceleration metrics. Fourteen able-bodied subjects walked over ground and terminated gait in response to a randomly-timed auditory stimulus. A lumbarmounted accelerometer and footswitches were used to assess timing of gait termination. Subjects were able to terminate gait in 1 step if the stimulus occurred at or before 19.8% of gait cycle. Later stimulus resulted in a 2-step stop pattern. The TTG using COM acceleration was greater than when using heel strike data. Motion of the COM was not fully arrested until 162 ± 38% of gait cycle. The stabilization phase between heel strike and COM motion arrest was greater for 1-step stops (1.41 ± 0.42 s) than 2-step stops (0.96 ± 0.33 s). These findings indicate gait termination timing should be calculated using COM motion, including the stabilization phase post heel strike.
Dinesh John, Dixie L. Thompson, Hollie Raynor, Kenneth Bielak, Bob Rider and David R. Bassett
To determine if a treadmill-workstation (TMWS) increases physical activity (PA) and influences anthropometric, body composition, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables in overweight and obese office-workers.
Twelve (mean age= 46.2 ± 9.2 years) overweight/obese sedentary office-workers (mean BMI= 33.9 ± 5.0 kg·m-2) volunteered to participate in this 9-month study. After baseline measurements of postural allocation, steps per day, anthropometric variables, body composition, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables, TMWS were installed in the participants’ offices for their use. Baseline measurements were repeated after 3 and 9 months. Comparisons of the outcome variables were made using repeated-measures ANOVAs or nonparametric Friedman’s Rank Tests.
Between baseline and 9 months, significant increases were seen in the median standing (146−203 min·day-1) and stepping time (52−90 min·day-1) and total steps/day (4351−7080 steps/day; P < .05). Correspondingly, the median time spent sitting/lying decreased (1238−1150 min·day-1; P < .05). Using the TMWS significantly reduced waist (by 5.5 cm) and hip circumference (by 4.8 cm), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (by 16 mg·dL-1), and total cholesterol (by 15 mg·dL-1) during the study (P < .05).
The additional PA energy expenditure from using the TMWS favorably influenced waist and hip circumferences and lipid and metabolic profiles in overweight and obese office-workers.
Ching-Yi Wang, Sharon L. Olson and Elizabeth J. Protas
The purposes of this study were to evaluate community-dwelling elderly adults with different levels of perceived mobility with 5 physical-performance tests, determine the cutoff values of the 5 tests, and identify the best tests for classifying mobility status. The community-mobility statuses of 203 community-dwelling elders were classified as able, decreased, or disabled based on their self-reported ability to walk several blocks and climb stairs. They also performed the functional reach, timed 50-ft walk, timed 5-step, timed floor transfer, and 5-min-walk endurance tests. We found in all tests that the “able” outperformed the “decreased” and that the “decreased” outperformed the “disabled,” except on the floor-transfer task. The optimum cutoff values of the 5 performance tests were also reported. The 5-min walk and timed 5-step test could best separate the “able” from the “decreased,” whereas the 50-ft-walk-test could best differentiate the “decreased” from the “disabled.” The results suggest that community-mobility function of older adults can be captured by performance tests and that the cutoff values of the 5-min-walk, 5-step, and 50-ft-walk tests can be used in guiding intervention or prevention programs.
Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën
length for both the paretic and nonparetic limbs increased significantly with respectively large to medium effect sizes after the PBT. Stride time variability and step time variability for both limbs and swing time variability for the paretic limb significantly decreased after PBT, with large to medium