ambulatory PA ( Bassett, Toth, LaMunion, & Crouter, 2017 ). Historically, hip-worn monitors have been used to assess steps per day ( Iwane et al., 2000 ; Swartz et al., 2003 ; Yamanouchi et al., 1995 ). However, wrist-worn monitors have become increasingly popular among consumers and researchers ( Evenson
Susan Park, Lindsay P. Toth, Paul R. Hibbing, Cary M. Springer, Andrew S. Kaplan, Mckenzie D. Feyerabend, Scott E. Crouter and David R. Bassett
Brian Tyo, Rebecca Spataro-Kearns and David R. Bassett Jr.
al., 2004 ), African American women had a significantly higher BMI (30.3 kg·m −2 ) when compared to Caucasian women (25.2 kg·m −2 ), which may have contributed to the device undercounting steps in the African American women, thus magnifying the differences in steps per day. Another obesity-related factor
Zhen-Bo Cao, Taewoong Oh, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Kazuyo Tsushita, Mitsuru Higuchi and Izumi Tabata
This study aimed to determine the optimal number of steps per day needed to meet the current physical activity guidelines in a large population sample of Japanese adults.
An accelerometer-based activity monitor (Kenz Lifecorder) was used to simultaneously measure moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and step counts in 940 Japanese adults (480 women) aged 20 to 69 years. The step count per day equivalents to 2 different physical activity recommendations (23 MET-h/wk and 150 min/wk of MVPA) were derived using linear regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology.
Linear regression analysis showed that daily step counts correlated with weekly PAEE (r = .83) and daily minutes of MVPA (r = .83). Linear regression analysis also showed that 23 MET-h/wk of MVPA is equivalent to 11,160 steps/d, and 150 min/wk of MVPA is equivalent to 7716 steps/d. ROC analysis yielded similar findings: 10,225 steps/d are required to accumulate ≥ 23 MET-h/wk of MVPA and 7857 steps/d are needed to meet the recommendation of ≥ 150 min/wk of MVPA.
The findings suggest that 10,000 to 11,000 and 7700 to 8000 steps/d represent the optimal thresholds for accumulating ≥ 23 MET-h/wk of MVPA and ≥ 150 min/wk of MVPA, respectively, for Japanese adults.
Charlotte L. Edwardson, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas Yates and Alex V. Rowlands
the ‘standard care’ physical activity self-monitoring option. Therefore it is important to compare steps per day measured by these new generation of physical activity self-monitoring devices against this standard self-monitoring tool in order to inform lifestyle behavior change studies looking to
Joaquin U. Gonzales, Jordan Shephard and Neha Dubey
We tested the hypothesis that the intensity of daily ambulation would relate with functional walking capacity in older adults. Forty-three women (n = 25) and men (n = 18) between the ages of 60-78 years wore an accelerometer for measurement of average daily steps and 30-min peak stepping cadence. A 400-m walk test was used to measure walking speed. No sex difference was found for average daily steps (p = .76), average peak cadence (p = .96), or walking speed (p = .89). Daily steps (women: r = .68, p < .01; men: r = .04) and peak cadence (women: r = .81, p < .01; men: r = −.16) were positively correlated with walking speed in women but not in men. After controlling for daily steps, peak cadence remained significantly associated with walking speed in women (partial r = .61, p < .01). Walking intensity during daily ambulation is independently related to functional walking capacity in older adults, albeit this relation may be more significant for women than men.
C. Tudor-Locke, D.R. Bassett Jr., W.J. Rutherford, B.E. Ainsworth, C.B. Chan, K. Croteau, B. Giles-Corti, G. Le Masurier, K. Moreau, J. Mrozek, J.-M. Oppert, A. Raustorp, S.J. Strath, D. Thompson, M.C. Whitt-Glover, B. Wilde and J.R. Wojcik
The goal of this study was to establish preliminary criterion-referenced cut points for adult pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) related to weight status defined by body mass index (BMI).
Researchers contributed directly measured BMI and pedometer data that had been collected (1) using a Yamax-manufactured pedometer, (2) for a minimum of 3 days, (3) on ostensibly healthy adults. The contrasting groups method was used to identify age- and gender-specific cut points for steps/d related to BMI cut points for normal weight and overweight/obesity (defined as BMI <25 and ≥25 kg/m2, respectively).
Data included 3127 individuals age 18 to 94 years (976 men, age = 46.8 ± 15.4 years, BMI = 27.3 ± 4.9; 2151 women, age = 47.4 ± 14.9 years, BMI = 27.6 ± 6.4; all gender differences NS). Best estimated cut points for normal versus overweight/obesity ranged from 11,000 to 12,000 steps/d for men and 8000 to 12,000 steps/d for women (consistently higher for younger age groups).
These steps/d cut points can be used to identify individuals at risk, or the proportion of adults achieving or falling short of set cut points can be reported and compared between populations. Cut points can also be used to set intervention goals, and they can be referred to when evaluating program impact, as well as environmental and policy changes.
Ann M. Swartz, Scott J. Strath, Sarah J. Parker and Nora E. Miller
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined impact of obesity and physical activity (PA) on the health of older adults. Pedometer-determined steps/d, body-mass index (BMI), resting blood pressure, and fasting glucose (FG) were assessed in 137 older adults (69.0 ± 8.9 yr). The active group (>4,227 steps/d) had lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = .001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p = .028), and FG (p < .001) than the inactive group (≤4,227 steps/d). The normal-BMI group (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) had lower SBP (p < .001) and DBP (p = .01) than the obese group (≤30 kg/m2). There were no differences in SBP (p = .963) or DBP (p = 1.0) between active obese and inactive normal-BMI groups. The active obese group, however, had a more favorable FG than the inactive normal-BMI group (χ2 = 18.9, df = 3, p = .001). Efforts to increase PA of older adults should receive the same priority as reducing obesity to improve BP and FG levels.
Tiago V. Barreira, Robert M. Brouillette, Heather C. Foil, Jeffrey N. Keller and Catrine Tudor-Locke
The purpose of this study was to compare the steps/d derived from the ActiGraph GT3X+ using the manufacturer’s default filter (DF) and low-frequency-extension filter (LFX) with those from the NL-1000 pedometer in an older adult sample. Fifteen older adults (61–82 yr) wore a GT3X+ (24 hr/day) and an NL-1000 (waking hours) for 7 d. Day was the unit of analysis (n = 86 valid days) comparing (a) GT3X+ DF and NL-1000 steps/d and (b) GT3X+ LFX and NL-1000 steps/d. DF was highly correlated with NL-1000 (r = .80), but there was a significant mean difference (–769 steps/d). LFX and NL-1000 were highly correlated (r = .90), but there also was a significant mean difference (8,140 steps/d). Percent difference and absolute percent difference between DF and NL-1000 were –7.4% and 16.0%, respectively, and for LFX and NL-1000 both were 121.9%. Regardless of filter used, GT3X+ did not provide comparable pedometer estimates of steps/d in this older adult sample.
Ing-Mari Dohrn, Maria Hagströmer, Mai-Lis Hellénius and Agneta Ståhle
To describe objectively-measured physical activity levels and patterns among community-dwelling older adults with osteoporosis, impaired balance, and fear of falling, and to explore the associations with gait, balance performance, falls self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
Ninety-four individuals (75.6 ± 5.4 years) were included. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and accelerometers. Mean steps/day, dichotomized into < 5,000 or = 5,000 steps/day, and time spent in different physical activity intensities were analyzed. Gait was assessed with a GAITRite walkway, balance performance was assessed with the modified figure-eight test and oneleg stance, falls self-efficacy was assessed with the Falls Efficacy Scale International, and HRQoL was assessed with Short Form-36.
Mean steps/day were 6,201 (991–17,156) and 40% reported < 5,000 steps/day. Participants with < 5,000 steps/day spent more time sedentary, had slower gait speed, poorer balance performance, and lower HRQoL than participants with ≥ 5,000 steps/day. No participants with < 5,000 met the recommended level of physical activity.
Joan Kelly, Katrina Edney, Chris Moran, Velandai Srikanth and Michele Callisaya
Physical activity (PA) is important in managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to determine 1) the number of daily steps taken by older people with T2DM, 2) if T2DM is associated with taking fewer steps per day and less likelihood of meeting PA guidelines, and 3) whether these associations are modified by age or gender.
PA was obtained by pedometer from 2 cohorts of older adults with and without T2DM. Multivariable regression was used to determine associations between T2DM, mean steps per day and meeting a guideline equivalent (7 100 steps per day).
There were 293 participants with T2DM (mean age 67.6 ± 6.8 years) and 336 without T2DM (mean age 72.1 ± 7.1 years). In women, T2DM was associated with fewer mean steps per day (β = –1306.4; 95% CI –2052.5, –560.3; P = .001) and not meeting the PA guidelines (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.28, 0.92; P = .03). Associations were not significant in men (P > .05). Only 29.7% of those with T2DM and 33.3% of those without T2DM met PA guidelines.
Greater focus is needed on how to maintain and increase PA in older age with particular focus on women with T2DM.