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Emily Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Adam Wacher, Christopher S. Fry and Douglas Paddon-Jones

, 1999 ; Suesada, Martins, & Carvalho, 2007 ). Investigators recently demonstrated that reducing and limiting step count to 1413 ± 110 steps/day for 14 days had a negative effect on myofibrillar protein synthesis, lean leg mass, and glucose tolerance in a cohort of free-living, healthy older adults

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, William D. Johnson and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between 2005−2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) accelerometer-determined steps/day and activity counts/day, and between steps/day and estimates of nonwear time (as an indicator of the unmonitored day) and time spent in sedentary behaviors as well as a range of physical activity intensities.

Methods:

Linear regression models were used to characterize the relationship between steps/day, activity counts/day, estimates of wear time, and intensity categories.

Results:

1781 males (mean age = 46.5 years) and 1963 females (mean age = 47.7 years) wore accelerometers 14.0 ± SEM0.06 hours/day. The relationship between steps/day and activity counts/day was positive and strong (R 2 = .87). The relationship between steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviors was inverse and moderate (R 2 = .25). Stronger and positive relationships were apparent between steps/day and time in light (R 2 = .69) and moderate (R 2 = .63) intensity activities. There was no discernable relationship between steps/day and time spent in low or vigorous intensity activities or with wear time.

Conclusions:

Assessed by accelerometer, steps/day explains 87% of the variation in activity counts/day, 25% of the variation in time in sedentary behaviors, 69% of time in light intensity, and 63% of time in moderate intensity.

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Travis Saunders, Nerissa Campbell, Timothy Jason, Gail Dechman, Paul Hernandez, Kara Thompson and Chris M. Blanchard

Background:

Although individual studies have reported on the number of steps/day taken by individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), this evidence has not been systematically reviewed or synthesized.

Methods:

MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for studies reporting objectively-measured steps/day and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) in patients with COPD. Meta-analyses were used to estimate steps/day across studies, while metaregression was used to estimate between-study variance based on clinical and demographic factors (year and location of study, activity monitor brand, number of days wearing the monitor, whether participants were about to enter pulmonary rehabilitation, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), FEV1%, age, and sex).

Results:

38 studies including 2621 participants met inclusion criteria. The pooled mean estimate was 4579 steps/day (95% CI:4310 to 5208) for individuals with COPD. Only 6MWD, FEV1% and whether patients were about to undergo pulmonary rehabilitation explained a significant portion of the variance (P < 0.1) in univariate meta-regression. In a multivariate model including the above risk factors, only FEV1% was associated with steps/day after adjustment for other covariates.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that patients with COPD achieve extremely low levels of physical activity as assessed by steps/day, and that severity of airflow obstruction is associated with activity level.

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Anthony Musto, Kevin Jacobs, Mark Nash, Gianluca DelRossi and Arlette Perry

Background:

Pedometer programs can increase physical activity in sedentary individuals, a population that is at risk for developing metabolic syndrome and each of its individual components. Although the popular 10,000 steps/day recommendation has shown to induce many favorable health benefits, it may be out of reach for sedentary individuals. This study observed the effects of incremental increases in steps/day on metabolic syndrome components in sedentary overweight women.

Methods:

This study was a longitudinal, quasiexperimental design. Participants were recruited from a 12-week work-site pedometer program and grouped as either ‘active’ or ‘control’ after the intervention based on their steps/day improvement. Self-reported physical activity, pedometer assessed physical activity, BMI, resting heart rate, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDLC, and fasting glucose were measured before and after the program.

Results:

The active group showed significant within-group improvements in waist circumference and fasting glucose. Significant group differences were observed in resting heart rate, BMI, and systolic blood pressure; however, the changes observed in systolic blood pressure were not independent of weight loss.

Conclusions:

Incremental increases in steps/day induced favorable changes in some MetS components suggesting that this approach is a viable starting point for sedentary individuals that may find it difficult to initially accumulate 10,000 steps/day.

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Amy L. Morgan, David A. Tobar and Lauren Snyder

Purpose:

To determine whether individuals participating in a program designed to accumulate 10,000 steps/ day demonstrate health, fitness and psychological benefits.

Methods:

Sedentary individuals (22 F, 7 M; age 59.8 ± 5.78 yr) were randomly assigned into a walking (W, n = 14) or control (C, n = 15) group. Following baseline assessment, the W group was given a daily plan to reach 10,000 steps/day within 3 weeks and asked to maintain this level for 12 weeks; the C group was asked to maintain their current activity. Participants were evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, resting and postexercise HR, functional ability, cholesterol, psychological well-being, and exercise self-efficacy before and following the 15-week program.

Results:

Significant changes over time were noted between groups (G×T; P < .05) with the W group demonstrating improvements in postexercise HR (−6.51%), total cholesterol (TC: −7.74%), and personal growth (2.53%). While not statistically significant, the W group also demonstrated improvements in 6 min walk distance (2.32%), total/HDL ratio (−10.09%), 8 foot up-and-go time (−3.35%), chair stands (6.17%), flexibility (128%), and environmental mastery (4.54%).

Conclusion:

A 15-week program aimed at accumulating 10,000 steps/day improves cardiovascular performance and personal growth and also positively influences many variables that are indicators of health, fitness and psychological well-being.

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

in physical activity research, and step-based physical activity goals are increasingly popularized, for example, 10,000 steps/day ( Bassett, Toth, LaMunion, & Crouter, 2017 ). The growth and adoption of wearable technologies (including research-grade accelerometers, consumer-grade wearable devices

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Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Catherine M. Champagne, Stephanie T. Broyles, William D. Johnson and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

The purpose of this study was to compare steps/day detected by the YAMAX SW-200 pedometer versus the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer in free-living adults.

Methods:

Daily YAMAX and GT3X steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (78% female; age = 52.6 ± 8.4 yr.; BMI = 31.0 ± 3.7 m·kg-2). Because a pedometer is more likely to be used in a community-based intervention program, it was used as the standard for comparison. Percent difference (PD) and absolute percent difference (APD) were calculated to examine between-instrument agreement. In addition, days were categorized based on PD: a) under-counting (> −10 PD), b) acceptable counting (−10 to 10 PD), and c) over-counting (> 10 PD).

Results:

The YAMAX and GT3X detected 8,025 ± 3,967 and 7131 ± 3066 steps/day, respectively, and the outputs were highly correlated (r = .87). Average PD was −3.1% ± 30.7% and average APD was 23.9% ± 19.4%. Relative to the YAMAX, 53% of the days detected by the GT3X were classified as under-counting, 25% acceptable counting, and 23% over-counting.

Conclusion:

Although the output of these 2 instruments is highly correlated, caution is advised when directly comparing or using their output interchangeably.

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Rishann Nielson, Pat R. Vehrs, Gilbert W. Fellingham, Ronald Hager and Keven A. Prusak

Background:

The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy and reliability of step counts and energy expenditure as estimated by a pedometer during treadmill walking and to clarify the relationship between step counts and current physical activity recommendations.

Methods:

One hundred males (n = 50) and females (n = 50) walked at stride frequencies (SF) of 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 steps/min, during which time step counts and energy expenditure were estimated with a Walk4Life Elite pedometer.

Results:

The pedometer accurately measured step counts at SFs of 100, 110, and 120 steps/min, but not 80 and 90 steps/min. Compared with energy expenditure as measured by a metabolic cart, the pedometer significantly underestimated energy expenditure at 80 steps/min and significantly overestimated measured energy expenditure at 90, 100, 110, and 120 steps/ min.

Conclusions:

The pedometers’ inability to accurately estimate energy expenditure cannot be attributed to stride length entered into the pedometer or its ability to measure step counts. Males met 3 criteria and females met 2 criteria for moderate-intensity physical activity at SF of 110 to 120 steps/min. These results provide the basis for defining moderate-intensity physical activity based on energy expenditure and step counts and may lead to an appropriate steps/day recommendation.

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Constantinos A. Loucaides and Russell Jago

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pedometer-assessed physical activity and a number of individual, social, and environmental correlates among Cypriot elementary school children.

Methods:

School children in grades 5 and 6 (N = 104) and their parents (N = 70) wore pedometers for five consecutive weekdays and completed questionnaires assessing potential correlates of steps/d.

Results:

A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that gender, weekly frequency of sports club attendance, and hours playing outside accounted for 32% of the variance in steps/d. In addition, children with a body-mass index (BMI) above the 85th percentile (based on age and gender) scored significantly lower steps/d than children with a BMI below the 85th percentile.

Conclusions:

This study suggested that correlates of steps/d in children are similar to the findings of other studies using different measures of physical activity behavior.

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Mieko Yokozuka, Chie Miki, Makoto Suzuki and Rieko Katsura

number of steps/day and lower limb muscular strength is different for each muscle ( Bassey, Bendall, & Pearson, 1988 ; Nagayama et al., 2008 ; Scott, Blizzard, Fell, & Jones, 2009 ). Although toe flexor strength may be related to standing and walking activities, the relationship is not yet clear. The