The pervasiveness of media coverage of sports teams with American Indian names and imagery has arguably supported stereotypical beliefs of those referenced. Past research investigating opinions on sports teams using American Indian themes has been inconsistent in findings and drawn criticism for lacking valid samples of Native Americans. Through a survey of National Congress of American Indians leaders (n = 208) and random U.S. adults (n = 484), results reveal that Native Americans are more offended by sports teams employing American Indian imagery, as well as more supportive of change, than is the general public. Investigation of how demographic characteristics influenced perceptions show that although age and education level have little influence, political party affiliation does correlate with opinions, with those voting Democrat viewing the teams with American Indian names, logos, and mascots as most offensive and in need of change.
Fraser Laveay, Coy Callison, and Ann Rodriguez
Yonghwan Chang, Vicki Schull, and Lisa A. Kihl
, 2016 ); they also provide strong evidence to suggest that lower sport viewership among women may in part be attributed to insidious gendered practices and assumptions including gender stereotypes present in the world of sports. The gender stereotypes to which girls and women are subjected in the world
Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny
Stereotypes are defined as “beliefs or associations that link whole groups of people with certain traits or characteristics” ( Kassin, Fein, & Markus, 2011 , p. 148). This definition implies that stereotypes consist of two parts; they link a group (e.g., East Africans) to specific traits and
Rachael C. Stone, Shane N. Sweet, Marie-Josée Perrier, Tara MacDonald, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
& Fiske, 2012 ). Ableism is a form of discrimination, social prejudice, and/or differential treatment toward individuals with a disability. Similar to other forms of social oppression, ableism operates consciously and subconsciously based on reinforced stereotypes that inform basic sociocognitive
Maxime Deshayes, Corentin Clément-Guillotin, and Raphaël Zory
According to the stereotype threat model ( Steele, 1997 ), people may underperform on a task when thinking about the negative performance expectations for their own group (for a review in the sports field, see Chalabaev, Sarrazin, Fontayne, Boiché, & Clément-Guillotin, 2013 ; Gentile, Boca
Alexander Brian Yu, Thomas Nguyen, and Trent Petrie
As racially diverse, early-career sport psychology consultants (SPCs), we reflect on our experiences working with collegiate athletes and coaches whose racial/ethnic status were different from our own. Our reflections cover (a) the external effects of stereotypes, presence (and pernicious effects) of microaggressions, and strategies for effectively coping with such transgressions; (b) stereotype threat and how Jeremy Lin’s entry into the NBA affected our self-perceptions; and (c) a call to action to further promote a multicultural approach to sport psychology training, research, and practice. In sharing these thoughts, we hope to promote further dialogue in the emerging field of cultural sport psychology.
Ernst Albin Hansen
Voluntary stereotyped rhythmic movement constitutes a fundamental element of a number of everyday activities performed by humans. Locomotion and cycling are obvious and well-known examples. It has previously been described that such activities can be performed in an automated and continuous way for
Jennifer T. Coletti, Veronica Allan, and Luc J. Martin
Few would argue that sport has historically functioned as a male endeavor. Indeed, society continues to favor men and boys and discourages girls and women through a lack of opportunities, accompanying stereotypes, and inadequate financial support. One reason for this is that female athleticism
Anna Posbergh and Shannon Jette
physical and emotional differences between men and women and the construction and reproduction of gender stereotypes ( McDonagh & Pappano, 2008 ). Given that “ideal” sporting traits are perceived as natural for male bodies, men are generally more enthusiastically welcomed than women into competitive
Sian L. Beilock and Allen R. McConnell
Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has been extensively studied in academic and cognitively-based tasks, it has received little attention in sport. This article reviews the existent literature on stereotype threat and discusses its implications for sports performance. The causal mechanisms of stereotype threat in sport are examined, followed by a discussion of why the cognitive processes thought to govern negative stereotype-induced performance decrements in academic and cognitively based tasks (e.g., GRE or SAT tests) may not unequivocally extend to sport skills. Finally, factors that should moderate the impact of stereotype threat in sport are outlined. Because stereotype threat has important consequences for athletics (e.g., impairing athletic performance, maintaining the underrepresentation of minority athletes in certain sports), it is a phenomenon that deserves greater attention in sport and exercise psychology research.