This study examined the presence and experience of muscle dysmorphia among current and former steroid-using recreational bodybuilders. The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory was given to 60 male participants, with 9 of these being interviewed to examine the predisposing factors, characteristics, and negative consequences of muscle dysmorphia comprising Lantz, Rhea, and Mayhew’s (2001) conceptual model. Quantitative results from the MDI data showed no significant differences between current and former steroid users in their experiences of muscle dysmorphia. In contrast, interviews suggested that former users appeared to be more susceptible to some of the characteristics of muscle dysmorphia, including physique protection and body distortion/dissatisfaction, which suggests perhaps a limitation in the amount of information that can be extracted from a questionnaire. These preliminary findings also raise concerns about the lack of a diagnostic tool available for the condition and are discussed in relation to Lantz et al.’s (2001) conceptual model.
Rebecca Davies, Dave Smith, and Kevan Collier
This case study examines star Major League Baseball pitcher Roger Clemens’s image-repair strategies during a press conference he held to respond to allegations that he had used steroids and human-growth hormones earlier in his playing career. When professional athletes are confronted with allegations of cheating or illegitimately enhancing their athletic performance, they are faced with a crisis situation, and selecting and performing the appropriate response is paramount in repairing their image and mitigating personal harm (e.g., loss of endorsements). In many cases, however, professional athletes rely on attorneys, agents, or other individuals who might underestimate the relevance of appropriately communicating image repair, thereby resulting in the athlete’s image being further damaged. Although Clemens employed various image-repair strategies during his press conference, his failure to enact these strategies appropriately further harmed his reputation and ultimately raised more questions than he answered.
Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher, and Gavin Breslin
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are hormones that comprise derivates of testosterone that regulate the development of male sexual characteristics ( Aljubory, 2019 ). A substance can be defined as an AAS through the following criteria: (i) a chemical, or (ii) pharmacological compound that is
Elliot R. Cooper, Kristine C.Y. McGrath, XiaoHong Li, and Alison K. Heather
, brochures, etc.), there is very little regulation of the marketing of these products. Companies can take full advantage of the poor quality control. Many studies have now reported nonlabeled substances like stimulants and anabolic androgenic steroids, in over-the-counter or internet-purchased supplements
Charles B. Corbin, Steven A. Feyrer-Melk, Craig Phelps, and Lisa Lewis
A group of 1,680 high school athletes were studied to determine factors associated with anabolic steroid use. A questionnaire assessed personal factors and steroid use, behavior of others and steroid use, and availability of anabolic steroids. Use rates were 1.1% for females and 2.4% for males. Steroids were more readily available to males, who also reported knowing more steroid users than did females. Older athletes were more likely to consider steroid use, but differences in use rate were not significant from Grade 8 to 12. Using discriminant analysis, significant differences (p < .001) were found for profiles of steroid users and nonusers for both males and females. For both males and females, personal factors such as having considered steroid use, a willingness to use them if they were legal, and a willingness to use them if they could insure success in sports were the most useful in classifying athletes as steroid users versus nonusers.
Amy B. Becker and Dietram A. Scheufele
Recently, the controversy surrounding the use of steroids and performance-enhancing drugs by Olympic and professional athletes has captured the media spotlight, in part as a response to the very public and pervasive steroids scandal plaguing Major League Baseball (MLB). This article examines trends in Americans’ attitudes toward the use of steroids and performance-enhancing drugs in Olympic and professional sport as a way to better understand the messaging challenges that policy makers, players, managers, coaches, and publicists face when trying to influence the media agenda. As the poll data presented suggest, Americans feel that the incidence of performanceenhancing- drug use in professional sport is significant, especially in MLB. Furthermore, Americans suggest that the leadership of various professional sports is not doing enough to combat the use of steroids and performance-enhancing drugs by top competitors.
Tracy W. Olrich and Martha E. Ewing
A significant amount of attention has been given to the psychological effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use in sport (Bahrke, Yesalis, & Wright, 1996). However, apart from a few selected case studies, a relative dearth of information has been provided concerning the subjective experience of people using AAS. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of 10 men who were using or had previously used AAS. The participants in this study were weight trainers with primarily a bodybuilding emphasis. All had used AAS at some point in their training experience. The study involved in-depth interviews focusing on the AAS use experience. Nine of the 10 men described their AAS use experience in a very favorable manner. The men perceived increases in muscle mass, strength, peer recognition, social status, sexual performance, and vocational performance. These findings are discussed relative to current AAS educational programs and interventions.
Robert E. Keith, Michael H. Stone, Ralph E. Carson, Robert G. Lefavi, and Steven J. Fleck
Fourteen trained male anabolic steroid-using bodybuilders (SBBs) (19-41 years) were recruited for the study. Three-day diet records were obtained from SBBs and analyzed. A resting venous blood sample was drawn, and serum/ plasma was subsequently analyzed for various nutritionally related factors. Results showed that mean dietary energy (4,469 ± 1,406 kcal), protein (252 ± 109 g), and vitamin and mineral intakes of SBBs greatly exceeded U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary cholesterol intake was 2.8 times the recommended levels. Mean serum/plasma nutrient concentrations of SBBs were within normal range. However, individual SBBs had a number of serum/ plasma values outside of the normal or recommended range, the most notable of which was hypercalcemia, which was present in 42% of SBBs. Serum/plasma lipids were such as to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in these subjects.
Edward Gregg and W. Jack Rejeski
This article reviews both human and nonhuman primate research dealing with the social psychobiologic effects of anabolic/androgenic steroids (AS). Descriptive research and anecdotal reports within the realm of sport suggest that AS may have a variety of psychological and behavioral effects including psychotic episodes and increased aggression. Recent investigations with a nonhuman primate model confirm that the effects of AS on psychological states and overt behavior can be quite varied, ranging from those that can be characterized as active (e.g., mania and aggression) to more passive states (e.g., depression and social withdrawal). There are also profound physiological effects of a biobehavioral origin that constitute a risk for cardiovascular disease. The most striking aspect of AS is that the effects of this drug are due to an interaction between its pharmacologic properties and the social milieu.
Constantinos N. Maganaris, Dave Collins, and Martin Sharp
Although expectancy has been shown to play a role in the effect of Anabolic Steroids (AS) on behavior, little research has been completed on the potential for parallel effects on performance. This is an important area for investigation because if expectancy effects can be shown to operate by improvements in performance through the administration of a placebo, arguments against the use of AS may be more successfully advanced. Accordingly, the present investigation used the administration of a placebo (saccharine) with competitive power lifters, using false information about the nature of the drug to delineate expectancy effects. The pervasiveness of these effects was further examined by disclosing the true nature of the drug to half of the participants, midway through the investigation. Notable improvements in performance associated with the belief that AS had been administered largely dissipated when athletes were informed as to the true nature of the drug. Results indicated that expectancy played a notable role in performance enhancement. Implications for this work include more effective use of such investigations in the fight against doping in sport.