). Using case studies and stimulated-recall interviews, this line of research—with both youth-sport and high-performance ice hockey coaches—illustrated that when making decisions during competition coaches considered both the contextual information from the game and their personal knowledge of the athletes
Julia Allain, Gordon A. Bloom, and Wade D. Gilbert
Shrehan Lynch and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Michael’s content and pedagogies. Michael then took part in three stimulated recall interviews . These interviews involved Michael watching filmed episodes of his teaching from the early field experience which the first author deemed to be examples of inequitable teaching. Michael was asked to reflect on
Leah K. May, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind
indicated or illustrated PTs’ value orientation priorities and the influences that shaped these priorities. Finally, the first author collected data from one 60-min stimulated recall session Stella conducted with the PTs. During this session, PTs observed film of themselves teaching during the EFE
Catherine D. Ennis
This research examined content and task decisions of 11 urban secondary physical educators who placed a high priority on social curriculum goals. Transcript data from a stimulated-recall protocol were analyzed using constant comparison to determine the extent to which content and task decisions represented social justice and reform goals of social reconstruction or of citizenship and positive interaction more consistent with social responsibility. Results suggested that teachers’ content decisions were consistent with the goals of cooperation, teamwork, and involvement within the social responsibility value orientation. Task structures for middle school programs involved large group activities, while high school tasks focused on individual activities performed as a member of a small group.
Amelia M. Lee, Dennis K. Landin, and Jo A. Carter
Thirty fourth-grade students were provided two 30-min lessons on the tennis forehand ground stroke. The students and the teacher were videotaped, and, following each lesson, the students were interviewed using a stimulated-recall procedure. Frequency measures of successful practice trials were also coded for each student during each practice session. Analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between skill-related thoughts and successful performance during class. The findings support the notion that student thoughts are important mediators between instruction and student response patterns.
Salee Supaporn, Patt Dodds, and Linda Griffin
This study was designed to investigate how the classroom ecology (interactions among task systems) and program of action influence participants’ understandings of misbehavior in a middle school physical education setting. One teacher and 14 students participated in a 10-day basketball unit with 47- minute classes. Data included fieldnotes, stimulated recall using videotapes, and semi-structured teacher and student pre- and post-unit interviews. Data were first analyzed inductively by constant comparison (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) and then by using Doyle’s (1986) classroom ecology model to understand the inductively generated categories. Data trustworthiness involved prolonged engagement, member checks, and triangulation. Results indicated that the teacher’s weak managerial task system, coupled with vague and incomplete instructional tasks, interacted with a student social system grounded in various forms of talk as social tasks to support a social program of action. Both teacher and student actions jointly created a primary social vector characterizing the overall program of action.
Thomas Davies, Andrew Cruickshank, and Dave Collins
Recent retrospective research has identified effective meso-level thoughts and behaviors for high level golfers (i.e., those deployed between shots and holes). However, how such thoughts and behaviors are actually used during this phase of performance and, or if, they vary in different contexts is unknown. Accordingly, real-time observations followed by stimulated recall interviews were used to examine the meso-level processes used by high-level golfers during competition. Results indicated use of the same pre2- and post-shot routines identified in prior retrospective research but with key differences in the content and application of some of their stages relative to shot outcome. These similarities and differences are discussed along with implications for practitioners: including the importance of developing metacognitive skills, and prioritizing the development of performance expertise over performance competencies for high-level golfers at the meso-level of performance.
Pamela C. Allison
Elementary school classroom teachers continue to have primary responsibility for teaching elementary physical education. As a group, they have received little attention concerning their development of pedagogical skills in physical education. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to describe what preservice classroom teachers observe and what perceptual processes they employ while observing physical education field lessons. The participants were seven junior elementary education majors who observed two physical education classes. Data were collected using the techniques of thinking aloud and stimulated recall interview. The constant comparative method of data analysis revealed the following three themes as characteristic of this group of preservice classroom teachers: students’ movement responses dominated their observational attention, the classroom teachers evaluated what they saw, and they observed using the perceptual process of contrast.
Gunn Nyberg and Hakan Larsson
The purpose of this article is to explore physical education (PE) teachers’ content knowledge of the emerging concept movement capability. Interviews with eight PE teachers were conducted, partly using a stimulated recall technique which involved watching and commenting on video recorded PE lessons. A phenomenographic analysis was used to outline the different ways of conceptualizing movement capability. Five different ways of conceptualizing movement capability were identified, which indicates the complexity of the concept movement capability. However, the result also provides a structure for developing a systematic and structured way of conceiving movement capability. In this study we have highlighted a multifaceted, nuanced and differentiated picture of movement capability to see moving as educationally valuable. We conclude by emphasizing that movement capability should not be restricted to only its constitutive parts as teachers’ plan PE teaching, but should be approached as a whole.
Bonnie L. Tjeerdsma
The purpose of this study was to directly compare teacher and student expectations for task difficulty and performance, perceptions of actual task difficulty, perceptions of student performance and effort, and perceptions of teacher feedback. Stimulated recall interviews following a 14-lesson volleyball unit were conducted with 8 sixth-grade students and their physical education teacher. The results revealed little congruency between student and teacher perspectives of task difficulty or perceptions of student performance and effort. The students and the teacher agreed the most on expected performance level and the least on perceptions of effort. Such differences in perspectives may be partially explained by the sources of information used by the teacher and students to form their expectations and perceptions. There was somewhat higher agreement between the teacher and students on the purpose of and affective reactions to skill-related feedback.