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Tiago Neto, Lia Jacobsohn, Ana I. Carita and Raul Oliveira

Context: The active-knee-extension test (AKE) and the straight-leg-raise test (SLR) are widely used for flexibility assessment. A number of investigations have tested the reliability of these measures, especially the AKE. However, in most studies, the sample involved subjects with normal flexibility. In addition, few studies have determined the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable difference (MDD), which can provide complementary and more clinically relevant information than the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) alone. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the AKE and LSR intrarater (test-retest) reliability in subjects with flexibility deficits, as well as the correlation between the 2 tests. Design: Reliability study. Setting: Academic laboratory. Subjects: 102 recreationally active participants (48 male, 54 female) with no injury to the lower limbs and with flexibility deficits in the hamstrings muscle group. Main Outcomes: Intrarater reliability was determined using the ICC, complemented by the SEM and MDD. Measures: All participants performed, in each lower limb, 2 trials of the AKE and the SLR. Results: The ICC values found for AKE and SLR tests were, respectively, .87-.94 and .93-.97. The values for SEM were low for both tests (2.6-2.9° for AKE, 2.2-2.6° for SLR), as well as the calculated MDD (7-8° for AKE, 6-7° for SLR). A moderate to strong, and significant, correlation between AKE and SLR was determined for the dominant limb (r = .71) and the nondominant limb (r = .67). Conclusions: These findings suggest that both AKE and SLR have excellent intrarater reliability. The SEMs and MDDs recorded are also very encouraging for the use of these tests in subjects with flexibility deficits.

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Nicole M. Livecchi, Charles W. Armstrong, Mitchell L. Cordova, Mark A. Merrick and James M. Rankin


To compare average electromyogram (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) during straight-leg raise (SLR) and knee extension (KE) with the hip in neutral and lateral rotation.


1 × 4 factorial repeated-measures.




13 male college students.


SLR with hip flexed at 40°, in neutral position, and maximally laterally rotated and KE with hip in neutral and maximally laterally rotated.

Main Outcome Measure:

Average EMG activity during each of the 4 conditions, normalized against peak muscle activity during that trial.


No differences were observed between exercises in VMO activity (F 3,36 = 0.646, P > .05), VL activity (F 3,36 = 1.08, P > .05), or VMO:VL ratio (F 3,36 = 0.598, P > .05).


Electrical activity of the VMO or VL and VMO:VL ratio do not change with hip position or exercise.

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Phillip A. Gribble, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, William E. Prentice and Edgar W. Shields

The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of static and hold-relax stretching on hamstring range of motion and to examine the reliability of the FlexAbility LE1000 compared with the goniometrically measured active knee-extension test. Forty-two participants (18–25 years old) were assigned to either a control, static, or hold-relax training group. Participants were stretched four times a week over a 6-week period, with four 30-s stretches per session using a straight-leg-raise method on the FlexAbility LE1000. It was determined that both static and hold-relax techniques significantly improved hamstring flexibility (ISLR: +33.08° ± 9.08° and +35.17° ± 10.39°, respectively). Participants of both techniques reached a plateau in flexibility improvement between Weeks 4 and 5. Thus, static and hold-relax stretching are equally effective in improving hamstring ROM. The FlexAbility LE1000 and the goniometer were both found to be highly reliable. Therefore, either measurement technique could be used successfully to measure hip-flexion ROM.

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Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts and Kenneth E. Games

participants. Methods We utilized a randomized single-cohort design. The independent variable for this study was a single-session of DOT. The dependent variables of interest for this study included hamstring flexibility measured during passive straight leg raise (PSLR) pre-DOT and post-DOT, participant

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Leanne Sawle, Jennifer Freeman and Jonathan Marsden

pelvic compression, 7 are a tool that have demonstrated some success in reducing pain and improving function on clinical tests such as the squeeze test and active straight leg raise (ASLR). 8 , 9 However, the practicality of using belts during performance is limited, and research has begun to consider

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Rasool Bagheri, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad R. Pourahmadi, Elham Jannati, Sayyed H. Fazeli, Rozita Hedayati and Mahmood Akbari

Tests In this study, the overall muscle endurance was measured for the lower abdominal and lower back extensors. These trunk muscle endurance tests have been commonly applied for the clinical practice. Prone double straight-leg raise test : The study participants were instructed to lie in a prone

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Kornelius Kraus, Elisabeth Kraus, Boris Gojanovic and Francois Fourchet

Preference might then go to an imprecise movement grading system, such as the Functional Movement Screen. Oftentimes, specific tests, such as the active straight-leg raise, can reflect mobility only through vague scores, which are not able to detect significant changes. 7 In addition, the precision of manual

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Timothy J. Gibbons and Marie-Louise Bird

-based exercises, such as tabletops (TTs) 3 and straight leg raises (SLRs), 6 are examples of single-leg motions with destabilizing torque forces that impact the spine and hence trunk muscle activation. Changes to lever length (from knee flexion in TT to knee extension in SLR) also increase torque force

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Jeffrey G. Williams, Hannah I. Gard, Jeana M. Gregory, Amy Gibson and Jennifer Austin

(treatment group) and the other received no intervention (control group). Change scores of participants’ hamstring flexibility measurements, defined and measured using a passive straight leg raise (PSLR) test, represented the dependent variable. Participants All the participants reviewed and signed an

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Garrett S. Bullock, Taylor Chapman, Thomas Joyce, Robert Prengle, Taylor Stern and Robert J. Butler

(+0.27% difference) and in-line lunge (ILL; +0.40% difference) improved in all athletes, whereas rotary stability (RS; −0.15% difference) and active straight leg raise (ASLR; −0.15% difference) decreased throughout all subjects. 12 The changes in scores highlight the fact that although the composite