Investigations into the strategies that are used by participants when they control their knowledge of results (KR) schedule during practice have predominantly relied on multiple-choice questionnaires. More recently, open-ended questions have been used to allow participants to produce their own descriptions rather than selecting a strategy from a predetermined list. This approach has in fact generated new information about the cognitive strategies used by learners to request KR during practice (e.g., Laughlin et al., 2015). Consequently, we examined strategy use in self-controlled KR learning situations using open-ended questions at two different time points during practice. An inductive thematic content analysis revealed five themes that represented participants’ unique strategies for requesting KR. This analysis identified two dominant KR strategies: “establish a baseline understanding” in the first half of practice and “confirm a perceived good trial” in the second half of practice. Both strategies were associated with superior retention compared with a yoked group, a group that was unable to engage in KR request strategies because KR was imposed rather than chosen. Our results indicate that the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules over yoked schedules may not only depend on what strategy is used, but also when it is used.
Michael Carter, Scott Rathwell, and Diane Ste-Marie
Sarahjane Belton, Wesley O’Brien, Eric E. Wickel, and Johann Issartel
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of noncompliance in an adolescent field based accelerometer study. A further purpose was to investigate the effect of a cost efficient strategy (SMS reminder message) on the compliance of adolescents
The research carried out in 2010 involved 117 second level students (12.41 ± .53 yrs) from 4 schools in a rural Irish town. The Actigraph accelerometer data were processed over 7 days to determine compliance level.
Students were more likely to remove their monitor in the evening period than at any other time, however if students removed their monitor after school it remained unworn for a significantly longer duration than in any other time period. Students who received a SMS message were significantly more likely (P = .008) to wear their monitor in the morning than those that did not.
Sending an SMS message each morning is effective for improving the number of students wearing monitors to school. The after school period is a critical period for nonwear time and should be targeted in future studies wishing to improve compliance.
Derek T. Smith, Tannah Broman, Marcus Rucker, Cecile Sende, and Sarah Banner
were generated. Through presentations and focus-group-like discussion, we capitalized on the experience and expertise of the 26 attendees (all engaged in kinesiology advising). Here, we share and summarize our learning in three domains (Advising Models, Advising Challenges and Strategies in Broad
Michelle R. Zitomer and Donna Goodwin
Qualitative inquiry is increasingly being used in adapted physical activity research, which raises questions about how to best evaluate its quality. This article aims to clarify the distinction between quality criteria (the what) and strategies (the how) in qualitative inquiry. An electronic keyword search was used to identify articles pertaining to quality evaluation published between 1995 and 2012 (n = 204). A five phase systematic review resulted in the identification of 56 articles for detailed review. Data extraction tables were generated and analyzed for commonalities in terminology and meanings. Six flexible criteria for gauging quality were formulated: reflexivity, credibility, resonance, significant contribution, ethics, and coherence. Strategies for achieving the established criteria were also identified. It is suggested that researchers indicate the paradigm under which they are working and guidelines by which they would like readers to evaluate their work as well as what criteria can be absent without affecting the research value.
Bruno Ferreira Viana, Flávio Oliveira Pires, Allan Inoue, and Tony Meireles Santos
1000 W at the outset of an XCO race, 3 thus supporting the suggestion that a fast-start pacing strategy is the most-used strategy in XCO races. 2 , 4 Because of this fast-start pacing, XCO athletes usually decrease power output as the race progresses so that the time to complete each lap increases. 1
Peter F. Bodary and M. Melissa Gross
via slides has been a mainstay for many faculty for decades. The time and effort needed to learn new pedagogical strategies and make changes to an established course may heavily outweigh the instructors’ expected benefits to student learning, leaving them without a compelling impetus for change. In
Corliss Bean, Majidullah Shaikh, and Tanya Forneris
To progress research in the field of positive youth development (PYD), a deeper examination of the processes and practical strategies related to youth program delivery is needed ( Granger, 2010 ). Program quality—defined as the structures and processes of youth programs—is a crucial variable in
Hendrik Reimann, Tyler Fettrow, and John J. Jeka
balance during locomotion. For each of these different actions, or strategies, we briefly review the available evidence for humans actually utilizing them from the literature. We focus mainly on the medial-lateral direction of balance, because it is mechanically less stable in walking than the anterior
Psychological skills and strategies are trainable self-regulation methods like self-talk and imagery ( Arvinen-Barrow et al., 2015 ). Athletes use psychological strategies to pursue desirable outcomes, which are psychological states, like being optimally motivated and focused ( Hardy et al., 1996
Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield, and James G. Hopker
field. Among the factors underpinning endurance cycling performance, pacing strategy is one of the most studied. 6 , 7 Descriptive 8 – 10 and experimental 11 – 13 studies have been published across disciplines, and, interestingly, a variable gradient course has been considered an extra challenge to