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Andrew Renfree, Louise Martin, Ashley Richards, and Alan St Clair Gibson


This study examined individual contributions to overall pacing strategy during 2- and 5-km rowing trials in a coxless-4 boat.


A crew of 4 male rowers performed maximal-effort on-water trials over 2 and 5 km, and power output during every individual stroke was measured for each crew member. Mean overall boat and individual rower stroke power were calculated for each 25% epoch (25% of total strokes taken), and power for each individual epoch was calculated as a percentage of mean power maintained over the entire distance. The coefficient of variation was used to determine stroke-to-stroke and epoch-to-epoch variability for individual rowers and the overall boat.


In both trials, the overall pacing strategy consisted of a high power output in the initial 25% that decreased in the middle 50% and increased again in the final 25%. However, individual rower data indicate wide variation in individual power profiles that did not always mimic the overall boat profile.


This study demonstrates that overall boat power profiles during 2- and 5-km rowing trials are similar to velocity profiles previously reported for individual ergometry and on-water racing events. However, this overall profile is achieved despite considerable variation in individual rower profiles. Further research is warranted to determine the mechanisms through which individual contributions to overall pacing strategy are regulated and the effectiveness or otherwise of seemingly disparate individual strategies on overall performance.

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Derek Breen, Michelle Norris, Robin Healy, and Ross Anderson

An optimal pacing strategy during running events efficiently uses all energy resources by the end of the race while maintaining a steady rate of expenditure throughout the race. 1 Choosing an optimal pacing strategy for a specific event depends on a variety of factors such as the duration of the

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John R. Harry, Leland A. Barker, Jeffrey D. Eggleston, and Janet S. Dufek

employing a rigid lower extremity strategy decreased hip flexion velocity 100 ms prior to ground contact during drop landings, producing greater peak vGRF magnitudes, greater energy absorption at the ankle joint, and a more rapid landing time when compared with a more compliant strategy. It was later shown

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Andrea N. Geurin

; what strategies, if any, they used to accomplish these goals; and the ways in which they measured success on new media. Theoretical Framework The concept of impression management is defined by Schlenker and Pontari ( 2000 ) as “the goal-directed activity of controlling information about some person

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Patti Millar and Alison Doherty

stimulus for capacity building, the identification of needs and assets associated with responding to that stimulus, the organization’s readiness for capacity building, strategy generation and selection, and the short- and long-term impact of those capacity building strategies. It illustrates effective

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Everton C. do Carmo, Renato Barroso, Andrew Renfree, Natalia R. da Silva, Saulo Gil, and Valmor Tricoli

Pacing strategy has been defined as the athlete’s adjustment of exercise intensity during a race 1 and seems to be controlled by a complex intuitive/deliberate decision-making process 2 influenced by physiological, psychological, environmental, and tactical factors. 2 , 3 The rating of perceived

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Chris Chard, Liam McCrory, Kirsty Spence, and Matthew Milligan

hold another Town Hall meeting, have the SMPP analyst teams present each plan to the members, and lead them to a final vote.” For the first time in the last few days, Wilson felt his body relax. While he could clearly see how Fisher’s strategy was to his advantage, he still harbored some concerns

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Nicole Westlund Stewart and Craig Hall

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week CG imagery intervention on strategic decision-making in curling. A secondary purpose was to determine whether curlers’ imagery ability and CG imagery use would be improved. Eleven varsity curlers from a Canadian postsecondary institution engaged in weekly guided imagery sessions that were held at the curling club before their regularly scheduled team practices. Curlers’ response times on a computerized curling strategy assessment significantly improved from baseline to post-intervention (p < .05). In addition, their kinesthetic imagery ability, CG imagery use, and MG-M imagery use significantly increased (p < .05). These results suggest that when curlers are exposed to new scenarios, they learn to store, process, and retrieve relevant information quicker (Simon & Chase, 1973). From a practical standpoint, CG imagery training can improve curlers’ strategy performance, including their ability to use various strategies in game situations.

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Jeffrey N. Howard

The game of baseball and its internal cryptic communication system has always been vulnerable to sign stealing. By systematically studying the signals of an opponent so as to decrypt and intercept opponent communications, one can garner valuable insight into future events and strategies. Such “theft of signals” can lead teams to frequently change their sign indicator, should they suspect it has been compromised. The current paper presents a theoretical process of “hot” sign indicator obfuscation whereby the pitcher and catcher use unique hot indicator values that are generated after each pitch via an algorithm derived from randomly changing situational and/or scoreboard data.

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Vinu Selvaratnam

responsibility to oversee all MLB entities’ communications strategy and media relations efforts. Moreover, Manfred tells Bhavna that she is his chief spokesperson. As such, the onus is on Bhavna to make strategic and rational decisions in the best interest of the commissioner and all stakeholders. Because Bhavna