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Sarah Wymer, Michael L. Naraine, Ashleigh-Jane Thompson and Andy J. Martin

’ page for the 2017–2019 State of Origin seasons (see Appendix A ). Battersby was under pressure from the QRL board as, following the success of the Facebook Live post in 2017, the organization had invested heavily into live-streaming technology (i.e., resources and training) with the aim to provide

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Lynley Ingerson, Michael L. Naraine, Nola Agha and Daniel J. Pedroza

It is a turbulent time to be in sports media. As cable viewership declines all the major media networks are expanding their capacity to live stream sporting content through mobile devices. The ability to shift a viewer from the traditional broadcast to streaming hinges on convincing a user to

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Tyreal Yizhou Qian, Jerred Junqi Wang and James Jianhui Zhang

contributed to the increased access to elite competition ( Jenny, Manning, Keiper, & Olrich, 2017 ), and most importantly, the advancement of live Internet broadcasts, also known as online streams ( Sjöblom & Hamari, 2017 ). While e-sports can be viewed on linear television broadcasts, the overwhelming

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Melissa Raymond, Adele Winter and Anne E. Holland


Older adults undergoing rehabilitation may have limited mobility, slow gait speeds and low levels of physical activity. Devices used to quantify activity levels in older adults must be able to detect these characteristics.


To investigate the validity of the Positional Activity Logger (PAL2) for monitoring position and measuring physical activity in older inpatients (slow stream rehabilitation).


Twelve older inpatients (≥65 years) underwent a 1-hour protocol (set times in supine, sitting, standing; stationary and moving). Participants were video-recorded while wearing the PAL2. Time spent in positions and walking (comfortable and fast speeds) were ascertained through video-recording analysis and compared with PAL2 data.


There was no difference between the PAL2 and video recording for time spent in any position (P-values 0.055 to 0.646). Walking speed and PAL2 count were strongly correlated (Pearson’s r = .913, P < .01). The PAL2 was responsive to within-person changes in gait speed: activity count increased by an average of 52.47 units (95% CI 3.31, 101.63). There was 100% agreement for transitions between lying to sitting and < 1 transition difference between siting to standing.


The PAL2 is a valid tool for quantifying activity levels, position transitions, and within-person changes in gait speed in older inpatients.

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Brian Moritz

This study examined contemporary daily sports journalism through the lenses of media sociology and new institutional theory. In-depth interviews with 25 sports journalists (reporters and editors) identified the institutionalized norms, values, practices, and routines of American sports journalism; demonstrated how that institutionalization affects story selection; and showed how the profession is changing due to digital and social media. The interviews show that although traditional sports journalism is highly institutionalized, digital sports journalism is far less so. Traditional sports journalism is still centered around a story, and digital sports journalism follows Robinson’s journalism-as-process model. The journalists interviewed are expected to perform acts of both traditional and digital journalism during the same workday, which leads to tension in how they do their jobs.

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Christie M. Kleinmann

public relations fostered real relationships, but we confused a retweet or comment with conversation. We mislabeled game-day engagement as a relationship, and we mistook the superficial for an authentic connection. In our defense, this was all we had ever known. We were accustomed to a steady stream of

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Michael M. Goldman and David P. Hedlund

garnered a peak viewership of over 12,500 people, and during the game, it was one of the top 10 live channels on the esports streaming platform, Twitch ( Olson, 2020 ). The Phoenix Suns franchise quickly created a Twitch channel and hired a professional 2K gamer to create their NBA 2K team, which included

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Jue Hou, Xiaoxu Yang and Elliot Panek

, 2018 ). Current predictions of e-sport’s global annual revenue in 2019 are roughly $1 billion, while an estimation of global e-sport viewership puts the number of viewers in 2019 at 460 million ( Newzoo, 2019 ). Meanwhile, live-streaming platforms, particularly, have become central to the

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Roxane Coche and Benjamin J. Lynn

events streamed live through the work of all-student crews. While such investments are still useful because the equipment in a truck remains similar to that of a production hub’s, acquiring a production truck should not be a priority for any program. Regardless of the model students are learning with

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Louisa D. Raisbeck, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms and Randy Schmitz

focus condition directed toward a visual target. The occipital fusiform gyrus is highly involved with object recognition, 35 which may suggest that an external focus augments sensory streaming, but requires further investigations that incorporate behavioral and sensory measures. 36 , 37 Similarly, we