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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

-patient’s treatment. However, athlete-patients’ experience of objective strength and power gains could be a powerful agent to support ongoing treatment and recovery. In support of previous studies ( Calogero & Pedrotty, 2004 ; Carei et al., 2010 ; Chantler et al., 2006 ; Sundgot-Borgen et al., 2002 ), patients in

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Sandro Venier, Jozo Grgic and Pavle Mikulic

flexion strength and power, (3) barbell velocity in resistance exercise, and (4) whole-body power output. We hypothesized that caffeine in this form would elicit an ergogenic effect in all explored aspects of exercise performance. Methods Experimental Design This study employed a randomized, cross

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Warren B. Young

The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

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Edward A. Gannon, Keith A. Stokes and Grant Trewartha

Purpose:

To investigate strength and power development in elite rugby players during the different phases of a professional season.

Methods:

Sixteen professional rugby union athletes from an English premiership team were monitored for measures of lower-body peak force, force at 50 ms, force at 100 ms (all isometric squat), and power (explosive hack squat). Athletes were assessed at the start of preseason (T1), postpreseason (T2), midway through the competitive season (T3), and at the end of the competitive season (T4). Effect-size (ES) statistics with magnitude-based inferences were calculated to interpret differences in physical performance between the different stages of the season.

Results:

Very likely beneficial increases in force at 50 ms (+16%, ES = 0.75 ± 0.4) and 100 ms (+14%, ES = 0.63 ± 0.4) were observed between T1 and T2. A likely beneficial increase in power was observed between T2 and T3 (+4%, ES = 0.31 ± 0.2). Between T3 and T4, decreases in force at 50 ms (–6%, ES = –0.39 ± 0.3) and 100 ms (–9%, ES = –0.52 ± 0.4) occurred, while peak force and power were maintained. Over the full season (T1–T4) clear beneficial increases in all measures of strength and power were identified.

Conclusions:

Meaningful increases in strength and power can be achieved in professional English premiership rugby players over a full playing season. The greatest opportunity for strength and power development occurs during pre- to midseason phases, while these measures are maintained or decrease slightly during the latter stages of a season.

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Dale I. Lovell, Ross Cuneo and Greg C. Gass

This study examined the effect of aerobic training on leg strength, power, and muscle mass in previously sedentary, healthy older men (70–80 yr). Training consisted of 30–45 min of cycle ergometry at 50–70% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 3 times weekly for 16 wk, then 4 wk detraining, or assignment to a nontraining control group (n = 12 both groups). Training increased leg strength, leg power, upper leg muscle mass, and VO2max above pretraining values (21%, 12%, 4%, and 15%, respectively; p < .05). However, all gains were lost after detraining, except for some gain in VO2max. This suggests that cycle ergometry is sufficient stimulus to improve neuromuscular function in older men, but gains are quickly lost with detraining. For the older population cycle ergometry provides the means to not only increase aerobic fitness but also increase leg strength and power and upper leg muscle mass. However, during periods of inactivity neuromuscular gains are quickly lost.

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Andrew C. Fry, Carol C. Irwin, Justin X. Nicoll and David E. Ferebee

To determine absolute and relative (adjusted for body mass) strength, mean power, and mean velocity for upper and lower body resistance exercises, forty-seven young boys and girls participated in maximal strength testing. Healthy young boys and girls, ages 3- to 7-years old, were tested for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength, and 70% of 1-RM to determine mean power and mean velocity on the chest press and leg press exercises. Adult weight machines were modified to accommodate the smaller size and lower strength levels of the children. A 2 × 4 (sex × age) ANOVA was used to determine age and sex differences in performance. No interaction or sex differences were observed for any variable at any age. 1-RM strength, mean power, and mean velocity significantly increased across ages (p ≤ .05). When adjusted for body mass, the changes were insignificant, with one exception. Relative mean power for the bench press increased with age. Data indicated children from 3-7 years of age are capable of performing strength and power tests, but may require more attempts at maximal loads compared with adults. It appears that muscular strength and velocity during this stage of development are primarily dependent on increasing body mass, whereas power is influenced by additional variable(s).

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Hilde Lohne-Seiler, Monica K. Torstveit and Sigmund A. Anderssen

The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderly. Sixty-three subjects (69.9 ± 4.1 yr) were randomized to a high-power strength group (HPSG), a functional strength group (FSG), or a nonrandomized control group (CG). Data were collected using a force platform and linear encoder. The training dose was 2 times/wk, 3 sets × 8 reps, for 11 wk. There were no differences in effect between HPSG and FSG concerning sit-to-stand power, box-lift power, and bench-press maximum force. Leg-press maximum force improved in HPSG (19.8%) and FSG (19.7%) compared with CG (4.3%; p = .026). Bench-press power improved in HPSG (25.1%) compared with FSG (0.5%, p = .02) and CG (2%, p = .04). Except for bench-press power there were no differences in the effect of the training interventions on functional power and maximal body strength.

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Rachel A. Hildebrand, Bridget Miller, Aric Warren, Deana Hildebrand and Brenda J. Smith

Increasing evidence indicates that compromised vitamin D status, as indicated by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D), is associated with decreased muscle function. The purpose of this study was to determine the vitamin D status of collegiate athletes residing in the southern U.S. and its effects on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Collegiate athletes (n = 103) from three separate NCAA athletic programs were recruited for the study. Anthropometrics, vitamin D and calcium intake, and sun exposure data were collected along with serum 25-OH D and physical performance measures (Vertical Jump Test, Shuttle Run Test, Triple Hop for Distance Test and the 1 Repetition Maximum Squat Test) to determine the influence of vitamin D status on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Approximately 68% of the study participants were vitamin D adequate (>75 nmol/L), whereas 23% were insufficient (75–50 nmol/L) and 9%, predominantly non-Caucasian athletes, were deficient (<50 nmol/L). Athletes who had lower vitamin D status had reduced performance scores (p < .01) with odds ratios of 0.85 on the Vertical Jump Test, 0.82 on the Shuttle Run Test, 0.28 on the Triple Hop for Distance Test, and 0.23 on the 1 RM Squat Test. These findings demonstrate that even NCAA athletes living in the southern US are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may be important for these athletes to optimize their muscular strength and power.

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Herbert Wagner, Patrick Fuchs, Andrea Fusco, Philip Fuchs, Jeffrey W. Bell and Serge P. von Duvillard

differences in match performance between male and female players should be understood 1 . Male players are taller, heavier, stronger (upper- and lower-body strength and power), faster (sprinting and throwing performance), 2 , 3 , 7 – 9 and have better aerobic fitness (maximal oxygen uptake: 57.0 [4.1] mL

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Glyn Howatson, Raphael Brandon and Angus M. Hunter

There is a great deal of research on the responses to resistance training; however, information on the responses to strength and power training conducted by elite strength and power athletes is sparse.

Purpose:

To establish the acute and 24-h neuromuscular and kinematic responses to Olympic-style barbell strength and power exercise in elite athletes.

Methods:

Ten elite track and field athletes completed a series of 3 back-squat exercises each consisting of 4 × 5 repetitions. These were done as either strength or power sessions on separate days. Surface electromyography (sEMG), bar velocity, and knee angle were monitored throughout these exercises and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), jump height, central activation ratio (CAR), and lactate were measured pre, post, and 24 h thereafter.

Results:

Repetition duration, impulse, and total work were greater (P < .01) during strength sessions, with mean power being greater (P < .01) after the power sessions. Lactate increased (P < .01) after strength but not power sessions. sEMG increased (P < .01) across sets for both sessions, with the strength session increasing at a faster rate (P < .01) and with greater activation (P < .01) by the end of the final set. MVC declined (P < .01) after the strength and not the power session, which remained suppressed (P < .05) 24 h later, whereas CAR and jump height remained unchanged.

Conclusion:

A greater neuromuscular and metabolic demand after the strength and not power session is evident in elite athletes, which impaired maximal-force production for up to 24 h. This is an important consideration for planning concurrent athlete training.